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[COMM 210] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (69 pages long!)Premium

69 pages917 viewsFall 2015

Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 210
Professor
Karim Boulos
Study Guide
Midterm

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Concordia
COMM 210
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Greiner : Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow
Greiner’s claims :
1. Organizational growth is characterized as a series of developmental phases.
2. Management practises that work well in one phase bring on a crisis in the next.
3. Organizations should not try to skip phases.
4. Growth is not inevtibale.
Greiner’s key concepts :
1. In research of organizational development, we notice 5 key dimensions : (1) Age and (2)
size of an organization, the organizations stages of (3) evolution and (4) revolution and
(5) growth rate of the industry.
5 Phases of Organizational Growth
Phase 1 :
Creativity : Founding of the company, focus is on making and selling new product. Long hours of
work are rewarded by modest salaries and the promise of ownership benefits. Decisions are
highly sensitive to the marketplace feedback.
Crisis of leadership : Must find a new leader.
As the company grows, creativity becomes the problem, when production increases, a larger
knowledge is required. An increased number of employees requires management through formal
communication.
Management wants to lead the company like before. Conflict between leaders intensify.
Phase 2:
Direction : Functional organizational structure to seperate manufacturing from marketing activities
and job assignments become increasingly specialized. Accounting systems for inventory and
purchasing, incentives, budgets, and work standards are adopted. New manager assumes most of
the responsibility for direction, lower-level supervisors are treated more as functional specialists
rather than autonomous decision makers.
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Crisis of autonomy : New directive techniques eventually become inappropriate for a complex
organization. Lower-level employees restricted. More direct knowledge on markets and
machinery than their leaders (feel torn between takin intiative and following procedure).
Solution : Move toward delegation (reponsibilites are passed down).
Phase 3 :
Delegation : Greater responsibilities are given t omanagers, profit centers and bonuses used to
motivate employees, top-level executives limit managing, communication from top is infrequent.
Crisis of control : Managers have a greater authority and are able to penetrate larger markets,
respond faster to customers and develop new products.
Top management seeks to regain control of the whole company and seek to return to a
centralized style of management (which usually fails because of the organization’s newly vast
scope of operations). The companies that move ahead find a new solution in use of special
coordination techniques.
Phase 4 :
Coordination : Use of formal systems to achieve greater coordination and for top-level executives
taking responsibility for the initiation and administration of the new systems. Decentralized units
are merged into product groups. New coordination systems
Red-tape crisis : Criticism of bureacratic systems arise. Line managers resent direction from those
who are not familiar with local conditions. And staff complain about uncooperative and uniformed
line managers. Organization has become too large and complex to be managed through for
programs and rigid systems.
Phase 5 :
Collaboration : Encourage experimenting with new practices, educational programs to train
managers, less staff experts headquarters, self-control and self-discipline replace forma; control,
more flexible and behavioural approach to management.
Tannenbaum&Schimdt : How to chose a leadership pattern
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