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COMM 222
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Chapter 1What is organizational behavior The attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizationsWhat is Organizational Behaviour aboutStudying these attitudes and behaviorsProviding insights to effectively manage and change attitudes and behaviorsHow organizations can be structured more effectivelyHow events external to the organization can affect attitudes and behaviorsGoals of Organizational behavior predict explain and manage attitudes and behaviorsContingency approach Contemporary scholars and managers recognize the merits of both the classical approach and the human relations movement This contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situationClassical Approach Controlling and coordinating peopleHuman relations Approach Being flexible and adaptable Letting people express themselvesPerformance AbilityMotivationChapter 2 Personality and LearningPersonalityRelatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influence a persons feelings thoughts and behaviour A personal style of dealing with the worldDetermined by genetic predisposition and longterm learning historyCan change through adult learning experiencesDispositional Approach people have stable traits that influence their attitudesbehaviour at workSituational Approach factors in the work environment influence attitudesbehaviorInteractionist Approach org behaviour a function of both dispositions and situation most acceptedThe Big Five Dimensions of personalityExtraversion Sociable talkative vs withdrawn shyEmotional StabilityNeuroticism Stable confident vs depressed anxiousAgreeableness Tolerant cooperative vs cold rudeConscientiousness Dependable responsible vs careless impulsiveOpenness to Experience Curious original vs dull unimaginativeLocus of control is a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces High externals see their behaviors controlled by factors like fate luck and powerful people High internals see stronger effects on their behaviour as a consequence of selfinitiative personal actions and free willLocus of control influences organizational behaviour in a variety of occupations Internals are more satisfied with their jobs earn more money and achieve higher organizational positions In addition they seem to perceive less stress to cope with stress better and to engage in more careful career planningLearning occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential We assume that learning has occurred when we see a change in our individual behaviour or performance Employees must learn four general types of learning content practical intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and cultural awareness Practical skills refer to jobspecific skills knowledge and technical competence required to perform ones job Intrapersonal skills refer to skills such as problem solving critical thinking and risktaking Interpersonal skills refer to interactive skills such as communication and teamwork Cultural awareness refers to the cultural norms and expectations that exist in an organizationSkinners Operant Learning TheoryReinforcement the process by which stimuli strengthens behaviorPositive application or addition of stimulus Positive reinforcers tend to be pleasant Negative removal of a stimulus Unpleasant nagging threats Reinforcer A stimulus that follows some behavior and increases or maintains the probability that the behavior will be enacted again in the futureOrganizational errors involving reinforcing1 Confusing rewards with reinforcers fails because not made contingent on specific desired organizational behavior2 Neglecting diversity in preferences for reinforcers different people require different rewards Timeoff vs challenging task for workaholic3 Neglecting important sources of reinforcement could be administered by coworkers feedback on performance recognitionReinforcement StrategiesFast acquisition of response continuous and immediate reinforcement useful when dealing with problem employees emergency training unsafe behaviorPersistent Behavior when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcementReducing the probability of behavior1ExtinctionThe gradual dissipation of behavior following the termination of reinforcementGood idea to deal with the supporters of the contrary behaviorWorks best when coupled with reinforcement of desired substitute behavior
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