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Comm 222 part 2 notes.docx

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COMM 222
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Chapter 7 Group dynamics and teamworkA group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal Interdependence simply means that group members rely to some degree on each other to accomplish goalsFormal work groups are groups that organizations establish to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals They are intentionally designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction The most common formal group consists of a manager and the employees who report back to him Informal work groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational membersTypical stages of group development1Forming What are we doing here What are the others like What is our purpose The situation is often ambiguous and members are aware of their dependency on each other2Storming Conflict often emerges Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing Sorting out roles and responsibilities is often the issue here3Norming Members resolve the issues that provoked the storming and they develop social consensus Compromise is often necessary Interdependence is recognized norms are agreed to and the group becomes more cohesive Information and opinions flow freely4Performing With its social structure sorted out the group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment Achievement creativity and mutual assistance are prominent themes in this stage5Adjourning Rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common Members often exhibit emotional support for each otherPunctuated equilibriumEquilibrium means stability This sequence was uncovered by CONNIE GERSICKPhase 1Begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the groups existence The first meeting is critical in setting the agenda with what will happen in the remainder of this phase Gather information hold meetings little progress toward the goalMidpoint TransitionThis is the exact midpoint in time toward the goals deadline The transition marks a change in the groups approach and how the group manages the change is critical for the group to show progress The need to move forward is apparentPhase 2 For better or worse decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in phase 2 It concludes with final meetings that reveal a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product AdvicePrepare carefully for the first meeting Stress motivation and excitement about the projectAs long as people are working do not look for radical progress during phase 1Manage the midpoint transition carefully At this point a group coach should focus on strategy to be used in phase 2Be sure that adequate resources are available to actually execute phase 2 planResist deadline changes These could damage the midpoint transition Group structure and its consequencesSize and Satisfaction members of larger groups rather consistently report less satisfaction with group membership than those in smaller groups Size and Performanceadditive tasks we can predict potential performance by adding the performance of individual group members togetherDisjunctive tasks potential performance of the group depends on the performance of its best memberConjunctive tasks performance of the group is limited by its poorest memberDiversity of the group membership group diversity has a strong impact on interaction patterns More diverse groups have a more difficult time communication effectively and becoming cohesive This means that diverse groups might tend to take longer to do their forming storming and norming In general any negative effects of surface diversity in age gender or race are small or wear off over timeSocial norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other
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