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Concordia University
COMM 226

Chapter 9Ethics and Professional Practice In ItAn Introduction to Ethics and Morality ethics is closely related to morality and societys understanding of whats right and wronga persons moral stance depends on their age gender religion etcmorals are closely linked to personal valuesbeliefs that you hold about the way the world works and your role in ityour ethical position on any decision is informed by your own values moral code and life experiencessocietys legal codes also help us dene right from wrongethical dilemma where the law and some peoples moral or religious codes do not coincide to create an easy answer gay marriage Business Ethics and Conductcorporationsorganizations are inanimatethey dont exist in a human form but are animated by the actions of humans who create or belong to themsociety relies on the individual personal ethics of those in business to make the right decisions even though businesses as a whole have rules and regulationsThe Business Benets of Acting Ethically shields employees from harmful and costly legal action and negative publicity offsets riskreduces long term compliance and audit costs creates a brand built on integrity which can increase sales and create long term customer loyaltycreates goodwillensures the organization will be accepted as it expandsattracting quality employees and supporting an excellent employee brandWhat Causes Ethical Misconduct in Businessorganizations in the private sector want to make prots and maximize shareholder value and often could more money by acting illegally or unethically gap between management and shareholdersactions may be taken to benet management greed and ego are powerful forces and causes many people to confuse the differences between right and wrong and act more in self interest Corporate and IT Governancecorporate governance is dened as the highest level of decision making involving basic questions of status strategy and compliance within and organizationsuggests a need to include IT effective governance is critical enable for success in the global economy for securing the enterprises information resources and creating competitive advantage in light of the high prole corporate scandals such as Enron and WorldCom all companiesare reevaluating their governance to bring it in line with emerging standards corporate governance means that the leadership and management of a business are directly accountable to its owners shareholders for proper operation and nancial control of the organization includes deliberate and complete disclosure and reporting of resultsany requirements especially around reporting and disclosure clearly rely on fundamental assurances that whats in an organizations IT systems is reliable safe and secure IT governance is the distribution of IT decision making rights and responsibilities among enterprise stakeholders and the procedures and mechanisms for making and monitoring strategic decisions regarding ITIT governance begins as a very highlevel process that species1How the organization will set goals objectives priorities and policies for IT2How it will integrate IT with business strategies and goals and3Which organizational members will make decisions regarding and be responsible for the successful completion of these tasks the who of IT governanceThe CIO Managing IT GovernanceThe Chief Information Ofcer CIO must insure proper and secure use of all the organizations information resources and particularly the organizations compliance with privacy laws and regulations in every jurisdiction in which it operates Law and RegulationsDescriptionPersonal Information federal govt sets out ground rules for how private Protection and Electronic sector organizations can collect use or disclose Documents Act PIPEDApersonal informationgives individuals the right to access and request correction of their personal informations thats been collected Bill 198Ontario legislator bill that gives Ontario Security Commission the rule making authorityrequires reporting issuers to appoint audit committees and to prescribe requirements relating to their functionsPrivacy Act federal government act imposes obligations on 150 federal government depts and agencies to respect privacy rights by limiting the collection use and disclosure of personal information since not all organizations have a formally designated CIO the role of ensuring that IT governance is properly in place is actually the responsibility of the senior executive team ad the BODPersonal Codes of Conduct and Practicecodes of conduct are relevant to any profession and help guide the professionals within the eld in terms of what is and isnt acceptable and ethical behavior many professions have very strict codes of conduct medicine law where the consequences of not following them normally results in expulsion and the payment of compensation many large private companies in canada also have internal codes of conduct that relate to employee conduct and maintaining high ethical standards especially in high risk industries where the risk of unethical behaviour has high nancial or human costs such as a hospital Common Ethical Dilemmas Involving ITCopyright and Piracyone of the biggest plagues of the software industrypiracypiracy hurts the costs of software in the marketplace vendors factor in these costs and pass them to consumers does not encourage innovation and diminishes opportunities for IT professionalscopying and pasting something without referencing it is also another serious aspect of copyright infringement Patent Violationalthough violations rarely happen deliberately there are still many cases where companies are sued for patent violationsto use someone elses invention without paying is unethical and illegalReverse Engineeringused most often to nd out how another manufacturer created a product and then attempting to learn from this to make a better one or nd a new way to replicate it in a different way to avoid infringing on copyright or paying royalties on a patent Spam and Privacy Codesorganizations use spam as a marketing tactic and criminal organizations use it in phishing schemesthe ethical dilemma is not the practice of sending a promotional email it is seeking the permission to do so rather than collecting or buying email addresses where individuals have not provided their consentrequires IT professions to implement systems Security Breaches news stories often describe breaches in protocol usually in IT or how intrusions or security breaches resulted in the loss or disclosure of valuable personal information in most countries there are specic requirements to report these privacy breaches and take immediate action however there are exclusions to minor breaches Competitive Intelligence competitors want insight into what other in the industry are doing so that they can respond to the market and maintain their share gaining insights from customers partners or observation are all ne but beyond that there are a whole bunch of practices that are unethicalHiring Practices Equity and Equal Opportunity the high demand for IT professionals and low supply has attracted many immigrants of qualied professional to ll the demandthere has been evidence that visa workers are mistreated not paid fairly or exploited also people who come to canada to study have reported having less opportunitypractices that are not completely merit based are unethicalGreen ITIT is a contributor to environmental damage major steps all IT professionals should take promote recycling and reduce consumption
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