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Final Exam COMS HISTORY.doc

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COMM 320
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1 face to face communicationInteraction that involves the human body sender receiver and a messagein face to face communication the channel is voice face bodycontent is speech and gesturesenders or receivers are the individuals2ideological bias in the views of mediaPeters argues that we tend to think of mass media in terms of power and controlPeters argues that this view of mass media tends views it from the point of view of standing power The few speaking to the manyIgnores mass communication of the many speaking to the few ie protest strikes votes3 Mass media addressthe way mass media will send a message 3 frameworks of mass media 3 analytical variables indefinite forms of address message extended delivery system means loose coupling of sending and receiving to and by whomindefinite forms of address there is no such thing as discrete communicationwith all communication there is the possibility of spillageIt is a tribute to the programmers that radio and tv are so well received who design symbolic material that has decent odds of traveling well among mixed audiences in an unknowably diverse array of situationsType of address is one way that mass media attempts to filter the destiny of its message Who and how does mass communication hail4movable typeis the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a documentmade reproduction much easier fasterdisplaced human labour in process of written reproductioneliminated the mark of the individual in written reproductionpersistence of scribal tradition Waldorf educationpromoted rationalismdisplaced art and craft of scribal copying lengthy process acquired skillreduced sacredness of the booknot as precious an object since it is anonymously reproduced and multiple copies availablereduced the inherent aesthetic of the scribal book mechanical and more common as opposed to individual unique and rareMcLuhan what is gained speed in reproduction and dissemination what is lost the sacredness of the objectFor clergy and church authorities print allowed people of low station to read sacred texts less reliance on church authorities to interpret the bible for themConcern about content proliferation of low culture ie ballads pornography and the problem of bad influence on the masses5scribal cultureWritingstartedinstoneandlaterpapyrusandthebrushwereintroducedThesettingdownofwordsbecameimportantForinstancethecommandofthesuperiorobeyedbydependentswasreinforcedbywhatwasstatedinwritingsthatwerepreviouslydoneWiththeincreaseofusingpapyrusinEgyptscribesbecamearestrictedclassandwritingaprivilegedprofessionWritingwasrestrictedtogovernmentalfiscalmagicalandreligiouspurposeThespreadofwritingwasaccompaniedbytheemergeofnewreligionsaswell6broadsheet balladsmapsbroadsheets and early print didnt immediately destroy oral culture sheets were often read aloud or sung by literate people in the village to othersliterate singers replaced traditional elders or clergy as lone oral authoritiesbroadsheets increased range of areas of interest and novelties ballads were easily transportable mass produced and often censored for subversionPrinting presses expanded production and circulation not just of texts but of imagesmaps the world on paper satirical graphicscontributed to the weakening of aura in the work of art Walter Benjamin7imagined communityThe Nation as imagined community Benedict Anderson
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