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ENGR 202 - Final Review Notes

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ENGR 202Review SheetIntroduction to sustainable development and the role of engineersWhat is The EnvironmentThe environment is the aggregate of surrounding things conditions or influences especially as affecting the existence or development of someone or something This generally refers to the physical environment around us the air we breathe the water we drink and the lands oceans rivers and forests that cover the earthWhat are the two categories that categorize sources of anthropogenic environmental changeChanges associated with land useChanges induced by emissions or from products and industrial processesWhat is the role of Engineering in regards to environmental issuesEngineers are primarily involved in problems related to technology development and deployment Engineers also design and build all the manufacturing processes industrial technology and transportation infrastructure needed to extract transport and refine raw materials fabricate products and distribute the goods and services of modern societies worldwideWhat are the three sources of environmental impactsMaterials SelectionManufacturing ProcessesEnergy UseWhat is Industrial EcologyIndustrial ecology is the means by which humanity can deliberately and rationally approach and maintain a desirable carrying capacity given continued economic cultural and technological evolution The concept requires that an industrial system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems but in concert with them It is a systems view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material to component to product to obsolete product and to ultimate disposal Factors to be optimized include resources energy and capital Essentially the application of the Life Cycle AnalysisWhat is Sustainable developmentSustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsWhat is environmental engineeringEnvironmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment hence allowing future generations to meet their own needsOverview of Environmental IssuesAir PollutionWhat is the basis for all environmental concernsHuman Health andHuman WelfareHow is human health effects classifiedAcuteShort term exposure results in immediate response in the human bodyChronicLong term exposure results in longterm response in the human bodyCarcinogenicExposure leads to cancerHow is human welfare effects classifiedAesthetic qualities such as good visibility free from air pollutionName things that affect the airGeneral specificParticulate Matter Diesel Combustion MillsSulfur Dioxide Combustion of coal and oilCarbon Monoxide Carbon Containing materials are not completely combustedNitrogen Oxides Fuel Combustion and Industrial ChimneysTropospheric Ozone Photochemical reactions between sunlight and nitrogen oxidesLead Combustion of Leaded GasolineWhat is particulate matterParticulate matter refers to a mixture of small solid or liquid particles suspended in airCardio Vascular Lung Disease CarcinogenicWhat is Sulfur DioxideSO is emitted primarily from the combustion of coal and oil which contain sulfur as an 2impurityRespiratory problems Asthma Acid RainWhat is Carbon MonoxideCO is a colorless odorless gas that is produced when fossil fuels or other carbon carboncontaining materials are not completely combustedDizziness lack of breath asphyxiation and death What are Nitrogen oxidesNitrogen oxides oxidize in the atmosphere to for Nitrogen dioxide NO which is a 2reddishbrown gas that is toxic in very high concentrations Nitrogen oxides are primarily produced through fuel combustionToxic in high concentrations irritant in low concentrations acid rainWhat is tropospheric ozoneTropospheric ozone or groundlevel ozone is formed from complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon gases These chemical reactions are triggered by summer sunlight which provides the energy to initiate the
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