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EXCI 252 Study Guide - Final Guide: Alpha Motor Neuron, Neural Adaptation, Bone MineralPremium

4 pages98 viewsFall 2016

Exercise Sci.
Course Code
EXCI 252
Robert Panenic
Study Guide

of 4
Chapter 7
Designing Resistance Training Programs
(Pages 181-218) Part 1
What is resistance training?
A systematic program of exercise for the development of the muscular system
What are the health benefits of resistance training?
- Increased muscular strength
- Increased muscular endurance
- Builds bone mass: increase in bone density & bone strength, counteracts loss of
bone mineral, decreases the risk of falls with age
- Increase in size and strength of ligaments and tendons
- Lowers BP in hypertensive individuals
- Increase in fat-free mass
- Decreases fat mass & relative body fat
- May prevent the development of low back syndrome
What are some of the properties that are used to classify muscle fibers?
- Color
- Speed of contraction
- Strength
- Fatigue resistance
- Energy source
How are slow-twitch, intermediate, & fast-twitch muscle fibers different from each
other based upon these properties?
Fibres (Type
Intermediate Fibres
(Type IIA)
Fast-Twitch Fibres (Type IIX)
Red / White
Contraction Speed
Moderately Fast
Very Fast
Fatigue Resistance
Fairly High
Principal Energy
Aerobic / Anaerobic
Which protein structures compose individual muscle fibers?
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Identify physical activities in which slow-twitch muscle fibers or fast-twitch muscles
fibers predominate.
- Slow twitch: endurance activities. Ex: jogging
- Fast twitch: strength and power. Ex: sprinting
How does resistance training increase muscle strength?
- Hypertrophy of the muscle fibers
- Muscle learning
What do hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and muscle learning mean?
- Hypertrophy: an increase in the size of a cell or tissue larger muscle fibers
- Hyperplasia: increase in number of muscle fibers
- Muscle learning: body’s ability to recruit motor units increases strength even
before muscle size increases
How does resistance training hypertrophy skeletal muscle?
- First 2-8 weeks: rapid increase in strength due to neural adaptations. No
difference in rate of progression between males and females
- 8-10 weeks: muscle hypertrophy contributes more than neural adaptation to
strength gains, but hypertrophy eventually levels off. Greater hypertrophy in
males due to testosterone
- Greater than 6 months: contributes to increase strength without hypertrophy.
Believed that a secondary phase of neural adaptation is most likely responsible
for strength gains occurring between 6-12 months of training. Hypertrophy may
be limited to no more than 12 months
Does resistance training preferentially increase the size of one fiber type over
Preferentially increases the size of fast-twitch muscle fibers most responsive to a
strength stimulus
Does resistance training increase the number of muscle fibers?
- no
What is a motor unit?
- Makes up the functional unit of movement
- Made up of a nerve cell called an alpha motor neuron connected to a number of
muscle fibers
- To exert force: the body recruits one or more motor units to contract.
What are the components of a motor unit?
What is the importance the motor unit to force development in a muscle?
- When an alpha motor neuron calls on its muscle fibers to contract, all the fibers
contract to their maximum capacity
- The number of motor units required depends on the amount of strength or force
What effects do motor unit number, type, firing frequency, and order of recruitment
have on force development?
- The greater the number of motor units recruited, the greater the production of
- Slow-twitch motor units produce less force than fast-twitch motor units
- Fast twitch motor units’s fire frequency is higher than slow twitch firing frequency
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- Slow twitch motor units are recruited before fast twitch motor units for most
dynamic movements
What are the definitions of agonist, antagonist, synergist, and stabilizer muscles?
- Agonist: prime mover or target muscle. Contracting muscle that initiates
movements. Opposes the action of another muscle, it’s a antagonist, which
relaxes at the same time
- Antagonist: muscle that opposes or resists the action of an agonist
- Synergist: muscle cooperating with another to produce a movement neither alone
can produce or a muscle(s) that assists the prime mover.
- Stabilizers: muscles that prevent unwanted movement.
What are the different types of resistance training?
- Isometric resistance training : status
- Dynamic resistance training: concentric & eccentric
- Isokinetic resistance training: same speed or velocity
What are the advantages of static resistance training?
- Can be performed anywhere
- Can be performed at any time
- Uses little or no equipment
What is the major disadvantage of static resistance training?
- Strength gains are specific to the joint angle
Which type of resistance training is widely used in rehabilitation programs to
counteract strength loss and muscle atrophy?
- In rehabilitation programs
Which type of resistance training is contraindicated in coronary-prone and
hypertensive individuals?
- Isometric resistance training
What type of contraction is a maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC)?
What are the relative hemodynamic responses to dynamic & isometric exertion
Cardiac Output
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Heart Rate
+ +
Stroke Volume
+ +
Peripheral Resistance
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Systolic Blood Pressure
+ + +
+ + + +
Diastolic Blood Pressure
0 or
+ + + +
Mean Arterial Blood
0 or +
+ + + +
Left Ventricular Work
Volume load
Pressure load
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