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EXCI 252 Final: chapter 7 part 1 study guide

4 Pages

Exercise Sci.
Course Code
EXCI 252
Robert Panenic

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Chapter 7 Designing Resistance Training Programs (Pages 181-218) Part 1  What is resistance training? A systematic program of exercise for the development of the muscular system  What are the health benefits of resistance training? - Increased muscular strength - Increased muscular endurance - Builds bone mass: increase in bone density & bone strength, counteracts loss of bone mineral, decreases the risk of falls with age - Increase in size and strength of ligaments and tendons - Lowers BP in hypertensive individuals - Increase in fat-free mass - Decreases fat mass & relative body fat - May prevent the development of low back syndrome  What are some of the properties that are used to classify muscle fibers? - Color - Speed of contraction - Strength - Fatigue resistance - Energy source  How are slow-twitch, intermediate, & fast-twitch muscle fibers different from each other based upon these properties? Characteristics Slow-Twitch Intermediate Fibres (TypeFast-Twitch Fibres (Type IIX) Fibres (Type I) IIA) Colour Red Red / White White Contraction Speed Slow Moderately Fast Very Fast Strength Low Medium High Fatigue Resistance High Fairly High Low Principal Energy Source Aerobic Aerobic / Anaerobic Anaerobic  Which protein structures compose individual muscle fibers? Myofibrils  Identify physical activities in which slow-twitch muscle fibers or fast-twitch muscles fibers predominate. - Slow twitch: endurance activities. Ex: jogging - Fast twitch: strength and power. Ex: sprinting  How does resistance training increase muscle strength? - Hypertrophy of the muscle fibers - Muscle learning  What do hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and muscle learning mean? - Hypertrophy: an increase in the size of a cell or tissue  larger muscle fibers - Hyperplasia: increase in number of muscle fibers - Muscle learning: body’s ability to recruit motor units  increases strength even before muscle size increases  How does resistance training hypertrophy skeletal muscle? - First 2-8 weeks: rapid increase in strength due to neural adaptations. No difference in rate of progression between males and females - 8-10 weeks: muscle hypertrophy contributes more than neural adaptation to strength gains, but hypertrophy eventually levels off. Greater hypertrophy in males due to testosterone - Greater than 6 months: contributes to increase strength without hypertrophy. Believed that a secondary phase of neural adaptation is most likely responsible for strength gains occurring between 6-12 months of training. Hypertrophy may be limited to no more than 12 months  Does resistance training preferentially increase the size of one fiber type over another? Preferentially increases the size of fast-twitch muscle fibers most responsive to a strength stimulus  Does resistance training increase the number of muscle fibers? - no  What is a motor unit? - Makes up the functional unit of movement - Made up of a nerve cell called an alpha motor neuron connected to a number of muscle fibers - To exert force: the body recruits one or more motor units to contract.  W
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