PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Truth Condition, Deductive Reasoning
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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 8
Negation of Compound Complex Arguments
o It cause ambiguity in where we stand
o Ex: “ Would you say he the fastest , presttiest, thoughest horse in the barn” “No”
▪ Doesn’t clarify if the negation applies to the whole statement, or just a
subset:fastest, prettiest, toughest.
• Would it be correct to say he is the fastest, prettiest horse in the
barn? Did whole previous statement get negated only because he
isn’t the toughest??
o Ex: “Ted was cranky and annoying despite getting his way, as usual.
o Break it down
o 1. Ted was cranky
o 2. Ted was annoying
o 3. Ted got his way
o 4. Either Ted is always cranky and annoying or he always gets his way or both.
o This is disjunctive because it is unclear what “as usual” modifies in the original sentence
Factual and Non-Factual Statements
o Value-Theoretic Statements (open for disagreement, but effective in argument if accepted
o Statements involving material moral concepts like right/wrong, good/evil.
o Also involving aesthetic notions like beauty/ugliness
o Statements involving moral concepts are seen to have either no-real truth conditions or they
have truth conditions.
o Moral concepts have No-Real Truth Conditions:
▪ Some ppl think “killing innocent people is morally wrong” is an expression
of emotion like “Boooo to killing innocents” or “Killing innocents??!”
• Since theyre not arguably right or wrong, The whole moral concept
is viewed like this.
o Moral concepts have Real Truth Conditions:
▪ Viewed that moral statements contain implicit referece to a behavioural code
• “By the standards of my culture, killing innocents is wrong”
o Truth condition present, implies facts about his culture.
o Aesthetic concepts
▪ Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.
• No argument just opinion.
o We treat contrast between Objective and Subject statements or disciplines as Irrelevant