PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Truth Condition, Deductive Reasoning

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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Book Notes
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 8
Negation of Compound Complex Arguments
o It cause ambiguity in where we stand
o Ex: “ Would you say he the fastest , presttiest, thoughest horse in the barn” “No”
Doesn’t clarify if the negation applies to the whole statement, or just a
subset:fastest, prettiest, toughest.
Would it be correct to say he is the fastest, prettiest horse in the
barn? Did whole previous statement get negated only because he
isn’t the toughest??
Complex Statements
o Ex: “Ted was cranky and annoying despite getting his way, as usual.
o Break it down
o 1. Ted was cranky
o 2. Ted was annoying
o 3. Ted got his way
o 4. Either Ted is always cranky and annoying or he always gets his way or both.
o This is disjunctive because it is unclear what as usual” modifies in the original sentence
Factual and Non-Factual Statements
o Value-Theoretic Statements (open for disagreement, but effective in argument if accepted
by discussants)
o Statements involving material moral concepts like right/wrong, good/evil.
o Also involving aesthetic notions like beauty/ugliness
o Statements involving moral concepts are seen to have either no-real truth conditions or they
have truth conditions.
o Moral concepts have No-Real Truth Conditions:
Some ppl think killing innocent people is morally wrong” is an expression
of emotion like Boooo to killing innocents” or Killing innocents??!”
Since theyre not arguably right or wrong, The whole moral concept
is viewed like this.
o Moral concepts have Real Truth Conditions:
Viewed that moral statements contain implicit referece to a behavioural code
By the standards of my culture, killing innocents is wrong”
o Truth condition present, implies facts about his culture.
o Aesthetic concepts
Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.
No argument just opinion.
o We treat contrast between Objective and Subject statements or disciplines as Irrelevant
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