PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Implicature, Deductive Reasoning, Soundness

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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Book Notes
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 7
: Soundness is a sufficient condition for an argument to be Valid.(is its
sound, its automatically valid)
Ex: Being mammal is a sufficient condition to be warm-bodied. (all
mammals are warm bodied)
Truth Conditions of Compound Sentences
o Simple (or atomic) Statements: Sentence that doesn’t contain another sentence as one of its
parts. Ex: My dog has Fleas.
o Conjunctive statements or Conjunction: 2 or more sub-statements, joined by words “and” or
“but” “also”. A Conjuntive statement is true only is both conjuctions are true. Meaning
o Statement in form of “P and Q” is only true is both P and Q are both true.
o Disjunctive Satetment, or Disjunction: Statement in form of “P or Q”.
o If the “or” is used exclusively: is true if and only if one of P or Q is true.
Ex: “Fish or cut the bait”
If the “or” is used inclusively: is true is at least one of P or Q is true.
o Conditional Statements: statement in the form of “If P then Q”. it is true unless P is true and
Q is False.
o In this form the P is the Antecedent, and the Q is the Consequent
o Usually, conditional statements are used to show that P made it the case that Q. But that can
be explained by an Implicature. But for argument analysis, this doesn’t need to be the case,
just need to know what argument requires. See if argument requires it to be in explanatory
sense or not, then determine if its good or not.
If P then Q.
Q only if P.
o If Bill bikes then Maddy swims.
o Maddy swims if Bill bikes.
Doesn’t need to explain why they bike or swim
Doesn’t need to propose causal connection between the
2 events
Just shows a correlation between truth values of the 2
sub-sentences; that whenever “bill bikes” is true, then
so is “maddy swims.”
2 kinds of Conditional Statements:
o Indicative Conditionals and Subjunctive Conditionals
o 1)Basic Indicative Conditionals: If P the Q
o 2) Subjunctive Conditionals: If it were the case that P, then it would be the case of Q.
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