PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Deductive Reasoning, Soundness

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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Book Notes
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 1
Rational slipups are easy in some cognitive terrain: careful habits in thinking and reasoning
are the cognitive equivalent of walking
The presentation of the fundamental unit of reasoning is the argument
Idealization has 3 main reasons:
o 1 the idealized concepts are simpler and easier to get the handle on.
o 2 lots of reasoning really is quite properly evaluated in accordance with the more
idealized concepts
o 3 starting off with more idealized approach to arguments enables us to understand end
evaluate non-ideal arguments (the short much more likely to be encountered) by
judging how closely they approximate the ideal.
The main focus of this chapter is deductive arguments
Having reasons
What is it to believe something for good reason?
o Justification/ Warrant;
Can be rationally defended on the basis of evidence.
There are reasons for believing what we do; as in explanations. But furthermore, we have
reasons for believing what we do.
Some beliefs we have, truisms, like “cars have wheels” and” ground gets wet when it rains”
don’t require us to go further in depth for why we believe them. We don’t reflect on
justifications for these beliefs.
Other beliefs like me thinking “hotdogs are best with mustard” are not shared by others, but
we don’t want to take time to argue it. So if you disagree its fine, ill take your mustard.
Other cases, its important to figure out if one of both compelling claims are genuine
o Therefore, its important to express reasons for beliefs and make reasons public.
o In order to settle disputes, teach new info
Assertions & Arguments
o Present a claim as if it were true
Ex: “It wasn’t a good idea for Athens to invade Sicily during the
Peloponnesian War”
Ex: “It’s much more productive to study in the library”
Ex: “This laptop is much better than the competitor brand”
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