PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Deductive Reasoning, Temporality, Modus Tollens

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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Book Notes
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 3
Modal Logics
Extension of Classical Logic
Complications factored in
o Belief
o Knowledge
o Obligation
o Possibility
o Temporality
All this to say logic is not monolithic
Non-Technical Side
o There are uses for the word logic that can cause confusion, if they are run together in the
technical sense
Used casually as loose synonym for “sensible” or “plausible”
Not only applied to inferences but to people and their choices
o Ex: “you’d rather have cold hands than wear gloves? That’s just not
o “if he’s athletic, then its logical to think that he’s tried skiing at some
o “she’s very logical, so se probably doesn’t like art, poetry, and music”
o Non-technical claims of what is logical and illogical can be best understood
as statements of agree and disagree
What isn’t an Argument?
Fallacious Argument: bad argument
o If a chair has 3 legs so it was poorly balanced, would it be a chair?
Yes, its not a good chair, but we might say it’s a lousy chair. But still a chair.
o What if it had 2 legs, a whole in the middle and no back rest, would It be a chair?
We might say it’s a broken chair, or maybe not a chair anymore
So what isn’t an argument?
o The term argue sometimes includes; assertions, insisting, repeating, declaiming,
vowing, defining, stipulating.
These aren’t argument
Explanation vs Arguments
o Subtle distinction between arguments and explanations
Explanation: form of reasoning; aim to make better sense of something already believed
o Can have implicit elements
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