PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Deductive Reasoning, Oat
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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 6
Add all 3 up
o Its possible to have argument with all 3 mentioned.
o Linked, Convergent, Sequential.
o 1. Oat bran is healthy and tasty
o 2. Oat bran is affordable and can be added to many different dishes
o 3. Oat bran is good value for the money
o 4. Oat bran is a good ingredient to have at home.
o How things would have to be for statement to be true.
Truth and Reasonability
o Arguments are: valid or invalid, sound or unsound
o Statements are : True or False
o Has sufficient evidence to render it acceptable
➢ We aim at the truth when defending our assertions, but the means by which we aim, is their
reasonableness according to our info at any given time.
➢ Reasonableness comes in degrees; overwhelming, considerable, marginal, and none
o 1) True or
o 2) False
o If “kind of true” or “sort of true”, then it is False.
o So we if say if smtg is “sort of true”, then it is not semi-truth, but has a similar
meaning to a fully true statement.
o Truth is Bivalent (having only 2 two possible Truth Values)
Necessary Truths and Definitional Truths:
o Must accept these as true.
o Necessary Truths:
o Accept Logic
▪ It is not the case that both: all bear hibernates and not all bears hibernate.
• This is Law of Non-Contradiction: not both: P and not P.
o So we accept this as true because of logic
▪ Mathematical Propositions