PHIL 210 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Deductive Reasoning, Oat

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PHIL 210-Critical Thinking
Book Notes
Chapter 1 The parts of public thinking deductive argument
Study notes 6
Add all 3 up
o Its possible to have argument with all 3 mentioned.
o Linked, Convergent, Sequential.
o Ex:
o 1. Oat bran is healthy and tasty
o 2. Oat bran is affordable and can be added to many different dishes
Therefore,
o 3. Oat bran is good value for the money
Therefore,
o 4. Oat bran is a good ingredient to have at home.
Truth Conditions
o How things would have to be for statement to be true.
Truth and Reasonability
o Arguments are: valid or invalid, sound or unsound
o Statements are : True or False
Reasonable Statement:
o Has sufficient evidence to render it acceptable
We aim at the truth when defending our assertions, but the means by which we aim, is their
reasonableness according to our info at any given time.
Reasonableness comes in degrees; overwhelming, considerable, marginal, and none
Truth Values:
o 1) True or
o 2) False
o If kind of true or sort of true, then it is False.
o So we if say if smtg is “sort of true, then it is not semi-truth, but has a similar
meaning to a fully true statement.
o Truth is Bivalent (having only 2 two possible Truth Values)
Necessary Truths and Definitional Truths:
o Must accept these as true.
o Necessary Truths:
o Accept Logic
It is not the case that both: all bear hibernates and not all bears hibernate.
This is Law of Non-Contradiction: not both: P and not P.
o So we accept this as true because of logic
Mathematical Propositions
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