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POLI 205- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 38 pages long!)


Department
Political Sc
Course Code
POLI 205
Professor
Ronald Behringer
Study Guide
Final

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Concordia
POLI 205
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
The exam will consist of two (2) long essay questions of which students will answer one (1)
1) Security
How can you measure power?
How can a country become powerful?
Power is a central concept of international relations which can be measured in different ways. A
state requires sufficient power in order to engage in either compellence or deterrence. The term
compellence is defined by the means of forcing someone to do something they otherwise would
not do, or stopping them from doing something they intend to do or have begun. In contrast,
deterrence is described by the means preventing an attack by raising the costs of aggression to a
prohibitive level.
There are different types of powers such as military power, economic power, soft power and
smart power. Military power is the most relevant form of power for maintaining security in the
short term. Most countries can hold conventional military power in form of national armed
forces. The term “military power” refers the army, navy and the air force. Although, there are a
few exceptions, such as the Holy Sea which is protected by the Swiss guards and Costa Rica
which is protected by a national guard. It is important to know that the U.S spends the most on its
military power annually with approximately 700 billion dollars. Therefore, it is apparent that the
U.S acquire the most technologically sophisticated military in the world. Moreover, the U.S has
eleven supercarriers.
In the security issues of the world, how does power play into this?
Economic Power
The type of power can be highly useful for compellence. For example, countries may offer trade
and investment opportunities as a carrot (positive), or threaten to reduce or eliminate these
opportunities as a stick (negative). Essentially, a carrot is attributed by a positive connotation,
whereas a stick has a negative connotation. Moreover, economic power is defined by sanctions,
which are low-cost alternative to military options, but stronger than diplomatic measures.
Sanctions may include erecting trade barriers, withdrawal of investments, seizure of foreign
government officials bank accounts and assets, and travel restrictions. The problem with
general sanctions is that that they rarely work. Sanctioned governments often pass on the costs of
sanctions to their citizens and continue to trade with non-sanctioning states. Furthermore,
targeted sanctions are a better opinion, in that they specify particular members of a regime to
sanction rather than the whole population.
Soft Power
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2
The ability to attract and co-op rather than by coercion, using force or giving money as means of
persuasion. The ability to attract others through appeal. It may be used through public
diplomacy, emergency relief, economic assistance, cultural exchanges. Additionally, the U.S
employs Soft Power, which ensures that military efforts are complemented by diplomatic and
developmental initiatives. An important aspect of the soft power is its political use. The political
resolve of a population can aid military offensive or strengthen defensive resistance when being
attacked.
Smart Power
The term smart power refers to the combination of hard power (economic/military) and soft
power strategies. It is used by the U.S. An approach that underscores the necessity of a strong
military, but also invests heavily in alliances, partnerships, and institutions of all levels to expand
American influence and establish legitimacy of American action. In addition, it ensures that
military efforts are complemented by diplomatic and developmental initiatives.
Nuclear Weapons (warheads)
Nuclear warheads need to have delivery vehicles. They are called Intercontinental Ballistic
Missiles. These weapons have a minimum range of 5,500 KM. They are either land-based or
submarine-launched. Nuclear weapons are defensive in nature. They are not used to attack other
countries. Therefore, their objective is deterrence. The concept is called nuclear deterrence. It
would be irrational to engage in a nuclear war that would result in the destruction of both states.
It would be Mutual Assured Destruction. (MAD) Ex: The Cold War
In order for a state to truly be deterrent, they need to have second strike capability. This means
that they need to be able to counter attack after their opponent’s first strike. In the same spirit, it
is necessary to have hardened and hidden missile silos. Meaning that they need to hide the
nuclear weapons in a space safe enough for it to still be intact after an attack. (in a bunker on a
high mountain)
Who has nuclear weapons and who doesn’t?
The U.S, Russia, China, India and Israel use Land-Based Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs).
The U.S, Russia, China, India and France use Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs).
The U.S also use nuclear weapons delivered by Aircraft. They have 3 types of ballistic missiles
which is their three pronged nuclear strategy. They also possess tactical nuclear weapons that
they can use on the battlefield. Countries need to be part of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in order
to have access to nuclear missiles. There are 189 countries who are part of the NTP. Countries
who are not members like India, Israel & North Korea cannot use Nuclear Missiles since the
NPT prohibits their spread to non-nuclear countries. Its goal is to promote peaceful usage of
nuclear energy.
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