POLI 304 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Daniel Baldwin, Fungibility
Course CodePOLI 304
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Economic Statecraft – Daniel Baldwin
Chapter 2: Techniques of Statecraft (8-28)
This chapter will focus on the nature of statecraft, the scholarly neglect of this topic, ways to
clarify techniques of statecraft, and the relationship between the statecraft perspective and the
perspectives of foreign policy, international politics, and policy science. In addition, some
objections to the statecraft orientation will be considered.
The Nature of Statecraft (8-9)
Statecraft has traditionally been defined as the art of conducting state affairs.
oIncludes both domestic and foreign, but mainly used by students talking
about foreign policy.
Harold and Sprout definition: “statecraft embraces all the activities by which
statesmen strive to protect cherished values and to attain desired objectives vis-à-
vis other nations and/or international organizations.”
K.J. Holsti definition: “statecraft as the organized actions governments take to
change the external environment in general, or the policies and actions of other
states in particular, to achieve the objectives that have been set by policy makers.”
The Neglected Study of Statecraft (9-12)
To study statecraft is to consider the instruments used by policy makers in their
attempts to exercise power.
oi.e., to get others to do what they would not otherwise do.
oTraditional focus has been on policy and power.
Scholars have focused on the policy-making process and ignored policy content.
oFocus on how policy is made but ignore policy instruments.
Economic techniques of statecraft are the main concern of this book.
“The lack of fungibility of power resources, the possibilities and incentives for
secrecy and deception, and the subtleties of strategic bargaining are only a few of
the important problems associated with the study of diplomatic statecraft.”
Classification of Techniques (12-15)
Harold Lasswell’s book, Who Gets What, When, How, sets forth a classification
scheme that will be used as the basis for classification used in this book.
He sets a fourfold division of policy instruments:
1. Propaganda refers to influence attempts relying primarily on the
deliberate manipulation of verbal symbols.
2. Diplomacy refers to influence attempts relying primarily on negotiation.
3. Economic statecraft refers to influence attempts relying primarily on
resources which have a reasonable semblance of a market price in terms of
4. Military statecraft refers to influence attempts relying primarily on
violence, weapons, or force.
Decision-makers will always want comparative information about the costs and
benefits of a technique.
Statecraft and Foreign Policy: Ends, Means, and Targets (15-18)
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