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[PSYC 333] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 68 pages long Study Guide!Premium

68 pages108 viewsFall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 333
Professor
Stephane Gaskin
Study Guide
Final

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Concordia
PSYC 333
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Research Strategies
BASIC ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT
Theory
1. A set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior.
Three Basic Issues in Development
1. Continuous or Discontinuous Development Theories?
a) Continuous:
i. Gradual augmentation of the same type of skills that were
there to begin with.
b) Discontinuous:
i. New ways of understanding and responding to the world that emerge at
specific times:
- Theories that accept the discontinuous perspective see
development as taking place in stages:
oQualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and
behaving that characterize specific periods of
development.
2. One Course of Development or Many Courses?
a) Does everyone go through the same developmental course?
b) Context:
i. A unique combination of personal and environmental circumstances that
can result in different paths of change.
ii. Contexts that shape development are many-layered and complex.
3. Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture?
a) Nature-nurture controversy:
i. Are genetics or environmental factors more important?
b) Theories:
i. Stability theory:
- Stresses the importance of heredity:
oIndividuals who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so
at later ages.
ii. Environment theory:
- Stresses the importance of early experiences:
oPowerful negative events in the first few years cannot be fully
overcome by later, positive ones.
iii. Plasticity theory:
- Stresses that development is open to change in response to influential
experiences.
THE LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVE: A BALANCED POINT OF
VIEW
Development
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Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Research Strategies
1. Development as a dynamic system:
a) An ongoing process, throughout one’s life, that is molded by a complex network
of biological, psychological, and social
influences.
b) Lifespan perspective:
i. Development is:
- Lifelong:
oWithin each major period of
human development, change
occurs in three broad domains:
1) Physical.
2) Cognitive.
3) Emotional/Social.
- Multidimensional and multidirectional:
oMultidimensional examples that intertwine
(e.g., if you can walk earlier, you can explore
and learn more):
1) Physical.
2) Cognitive.
- Highly plastic:
oDevelopment gradually becomes less plastic because opportunity
and capacity for change is reduced.
- Affected by multiple, interacting forces:
oAge-graded influences:
1) Related to age.
oHistory-graded influences:
1) People born in the same time period or cohort, tend to be alike
(e.g., Baby Boomers).
oNonnormative (i.e. not typical or average, effects a few people)
influences:
1) Irregular events that don’t follow a particular timeline (e.g.,
piano lessons, child abuse, etc.).
oResilience:
1) Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to
development (e.g., personal characteristics, warm parental
relationship, social support outside family, community
resources and opportunities, etc.).
SCIENTIFIC BEGINNINGS
Darwin: Forefather of Scientific Child Study
1. Theory of Evolution:
a) Natural selection.
b) Survival of the fittest.
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