Study Guides (238,266)
Canada (115,048)
Sociology (31)
SOCI 203 (12)
All (3)


19 Pages
Unlock Document

Concordia University
SOCI 203

SOCI 213 FINAL NOTESCHAPTER 10LIMITSRevelation Authority Intuition Common SenseScience are all ways of knowing epistemology makes reference to a specific worldview or ontologyOntology assumption about the universe our place in the worldmeaning of our livesEpistemology knowledge about how we know what we knowTheory approach 2 understandingexplaining societyhuman worldMethodology research plan makes reference to the relationship between and practice any methodology has to justify its use of methodsWestern classical scientific assumptions include the belief that we can know nature all phenomenon have natural causes science is different from common sense empirical observations form the basis of proof of facts science sees itself as neutral Assumptions criticized by Thomas Kuhn different paradigms govern the searchfindings of science Argues constant paradigm shifts when assumptions of 1 paradigm framework can no longer be used to explain ones findings Critical realism the meaning of the life world is not accessible thru direct observations we need to interpret the observed data to generate knowledgethat means that knowledge is always biased focushow is knowledge producedAbduction is a concept used by CR to make reference to detective work needed to more to more beyond inductivedeductive methods of investigationRetroduction a new concept introduced by CR makes reference to the need to develop new concepts so as to c beyond the obvious taken for granted life worldCRconceptual methodology emphasized the need to address empirical the actual and real dimensions of realityDifferent schools of critical realism emphasize how science can be used as a tool bypeople in power for domination and oppression racist gender theories that claim to have a factual basisSampling researcher chooses participantsunits of analysis from larger popgeneral surveys such as interviews telephonefocus groups Each method has strengths and weaknessesOther forms participation observation and content analysisSUMMARYMichael WaliznerPaul Wienir Ways of KnowingRevelation considered sacredabsolute totalcomplete long lasting source individualpersonal experience stimulus external ex a dream apparitionAuthority ex an individual in an institutional position an elder a soothsayer a parentWe accept authority as knowing in absolute terms we accept their proclamations as valid knowledge as the truthIntuition sense of knowing comes from within a person gets a sense about somethingcant attribute that sense to anything in particularCommon Sense all human societies can be seen to be characterized by elements in their stock of knowledge that everyone knows Can take form of wisdom platitudes sayings idioms clichestaken for granted facts it is often wrongScienceOntology about what exists nature of the world including social world study of being questions about what exists basic assumptions about what makes us human what is uniquedistinctive about our speciesEpistemology study of knowing what knowledge ishow it is producedTheory explain empirical phenomenon is a set of ideas concepts and propositionsMeth research plandesign that connects ones theoryresearch justify selection of techniques for collecting infoexplain connection between these techabstract theoretical reasoning that informs the research strengthslimitationslogic of herhis projectMethsTech operations tools datagathering approaches that we use to produce knowledge about whatever it is we are studying or attempting to understandConventional Western ScienceNachmias basic assumptions for science1Nature is orderly events exhibit regularity patternsstructure2We can know Nature including humanssocial phenomena3Knowledge is ignorance4All phenomena have natural causes scientific explanation replaces supernatural explanations based on religion magic of mythicism5Nothing is selfevident common senseother apparent claims to truth must be demonstrated objectively6Knowledge is denied from acquisition of experience empirical observationperceptual datamust be provided as supportproofBeing objective assumption that scientists are able to set aside all their personal political viewsother beliefsnorms when it comes to evaluatinganalyzing their dataKuhn argued that knowledge in the various fields of science does not typically accumulate slowlysteadily over long periods of timethere may be periods or eras of normal science when a dominant paradigm governs a field of scienceparadigms r unable to answer some key questions or fail to account for discrepancies and inconsistencies that emerge in datadominant paradigm might be called into question revolution new paradigm increases with new set of ontologicalepistemological assumptionsFrankfurt school science can become instruments of domination and oppression not enlightenment and progressCritical RealismScience
More Less

Related notes for SOCI 203

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.