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THEO 202 Study Guide - Final Guide: Messiah In Judaism, Synoptic Gospels, Twelve Minor Prophets

Course Code
THEO 202
Matthew Anderson
Study Guide

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1. What is canonization and explain, with specific details, some of the reasons why it
may have taken place?
What is canonization?
Canonization is a process of selecting certain books that will be applied in the belief of a
certain community. It is important to note that canonization is: Organic, Community-Based,
at first local, in reaction to opposition or heresy, and finally gradual process.
- It’s a collection of books
- Organic = it rises normally
- Canon = A collection of writings that carries authority in a given religious community
(Biblical meaning)
- In Greek, “Canon” means stick.
- Standard by which a religious community evaluates beliefs, practices and ethical
- A canon of literature helps a group define their identity both + & -
Ex: What they believe in and what they shouldn’t.
Explain, with specific details, some of the reasons:
- The Jewish believers were afraid of the upcoming Jesus-related scriptures that were
coming out at the time. They were also afraid that it would incorporate into their
Hebrew Scriptures. After the destruction of the 2nd Temple in 70A.D., they closed the
canon. They closed it in order to preserve the authority of the Hebrew Scriptures.
- NT???
Why has it taken place?
- Second Temple Period that all the collections started (70AD)
- In response to outside commotion believers of Jesus made the Hebrew scripture
canonized, believers of Jesus started to die (witness) and delay of Parousia (“second
appearance” -> second coming of Christ)
2. What was Hellenization, and what were some of its positive and negative effects on
the Judahites/Jews?
What was Hellenization:
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Hellenization (American English) or Hellenisation (British) is the historical spread of ancient
Greek culture and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or
brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the
campaigns of Alexander the Great (king of Macedon, r. 336323 BCE). The result of
Hellenisation was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with
local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as
modern-day Pakistan.
Alexander The Great:
Alexander the Great destroys the last of the Persian empire. He briefly conquers from Greece
to border of India. He is the first successor to have practiced ‘hellenization’ – the spreading
of Greek ideals and ideas.
Hellenistic language and culture become overwhelming and universal
Greek philosophies and ideals influence all of Jewish life; most Jews speak Greek and read
their literature in Greek. At end of this period the TANAKH translated into Greek (LXX)
Started of by Alexander the Great
It is a spread of Greek culture - (SPEAK ABOUT THE GYMNASIUM)
Hellenistic language and culture customs became overwhelming and universal
through gymnasiums and temples which made it easier to reach the general population
as well as the elite.
It involves identifying/introducing another version the God’s of various regions
with/from the Gods of the Greeks. This way the Greek representation of God’s spread
throughout the world. (NEED TO SPEAK ABOUT ANTIOCHUS - Erected a statue
of Zeus in the Temple and sacrificed a pig on its altar)
Syncretism: To bring resemblances from other people’s religion to make them
worship your own.
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1. The act of Hellenization lead the Jews to rebel against its process. (MACCABEAN
What is the maccabean revolt?
This rebellion was ignited by Mattatias who killed a Jewish priest that was trying to sacrifice
to an idol of the Greek Gods. It is important to note that Antiochus was against the Jewish
teachings, and strictly conformed to the hellenization. He would pressure the Jews to offer
sacrificial offerings to their Greek-Gods (in order for them not to be killed).
3. What is Theodicy? Explain with examples, how different parts of the Bible (Hebrew
Bible and New Testament both) deal with it?
What is Theodicy: Why do bad things happen to good people?
Theodicy is the search into the answer of why do bad things happen to good people.
Specifically, it looks into the question of why a good God that is all knowing, all powerful
and all present allows evil to happen in the world. A perfect example, is why do innocent
people die everyday.
Explain with examples, how different parts of the Bible (Hebrew Bible and New Testament
both) deal with it?
Hebrew Bible
1. Job (Wisdom literature) It’s not our business to know
In the story of Job, theodicy is answered in a way that God is testing the faith of the righteous
people in order to prove that their faith is genuine towards them.
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