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THEO 206- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 25 pages long!)


Department
Theology
Course Code
THEO 206
Professor
Lucian Turcescu
Study Guide
Final

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Concordia
THEO 206
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1) Explain the new relationships between church and emperor in the East and West in the
fourth and fifth centuries.
In the Roman Empire there was freedom of religion with the exception of Christianity.
The Roman religion was very complex because of the traditions and elements it borrowed from
other sources. In the Roman world Christianity was seen as a sect that sprung out of Judaism and
was looked down upon. This religion was seen as being disloyal to the state and having turned
away form the recognized God. As a result Christians were accused of being atheists, dangerous,
performing acts of cannibalism, murder, incest, and magic. They were also part of an antisocial
group because of neglecting certain gods and ceremonies. As a result there were many major
persecutions which caused many issues even after the persecutions were finished. One issue was
how Christians were supposed to collaborate with the persecutors. Some consequences of the
persecutions were destruction of churches, confiscation of property, prohibition of worship,
arrests, and cancellation of legal and civil rights.
With the help of Constantine and his sympathy toward Christianity the religion started to
become tolerated and eventually fully legalized. Christians began to have access to positions
with the government, money and support was given to churches, and as a whole Christianity
became an establishment. Constantine did so by granting universal religious freedom after he had
a vision of a cross that made clear to him his personal mission to convert the Roman Empire to
Christianity.
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Once Christianity became legalized there was a continuing conflict between church and
emperor both in the east and the west in terms of power. In the west there was the theory of the
two powers: Throne and Alter. There was the worldly power that was guided by the emperor and
the heavenly power that was guided by the bishops. It was required that the bishops and the
emperor work together for the good of the society. However, in the case of the west this did not
happen. The two powers were separated. The bishop and the pope went against the emperor and
there were many quarrels such as the decision of who was suppose to appoint the new bishop.
The emperor believed he was the one with the ultimate power while the pope believed he was the
power of the church therefore it being his decision. In the fifth century the western territory of
Rome was attacked by barbarian groups that took over. In the east there was a better relationship
between the two powers much stronger than that of the west. An example of this still exists today
and is that of the Vatican. The pope to this day is still the political ruler in Vatican City. The
model in the east is the model of harmony. The emperor and patriarch mixed and there was a
submission of the church to the state. Therefore there was still a little bit of separation between
the two.
2) Explain the notion of original sin in Augustine of Hippo and its relationship with the
human free will.
Saint Augustine, was one of the foremost philosopher-theologians of early Christianity and,
while serving (396-430) as bishop of Hippo Regius, the leading figure in the church of North
Africa. He had a profound influence on the subsequent development of Western thought and
culture and, more than any other person, shaped the themes and defined the problems that have
characterized the Western tradition of Christian Theology. Among his many writings considered
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