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Council of ephesus Read-Only.doc

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Department
Theology
Course
THEO 206
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
4 Explain the orthodox Christology developed at the Councils of Ephesus 431 CE and Chalcedon 451 CEIn 431 CE the Emperor Theodosius summoned a third Ecumenical Council held at Opinion is widely divided as to what the doctrine of Nestorius really was and how far it was heretical His sustained objection to the term Theotokos has traditionally been held to imply that he asserted not only to two different natures but also two different persons in Christ the one the man born of Mary But we must not overlook that he repeatedly affirmed the oneness of Christ though he preferred to speak of conjunction synapheia rather than of union henosis His fear of the Monophysite tendencies which were actually to come into the open a few years later led him to reject Cyrils conception of a hypostatic union henosis ksthhypostasin substituting for it a union of the will kateudokian The latter term certainly savoured of Adoptionism of which he was actually though unjustly accused Certainly his zeal for upholding the integrity of the two natures which he believed to be both selfsubsisting and therefore incapable of being physically united in the Person of the Godman caused him to fall into unguarded language and the fact that his own friends finally abandoned him supports the view that by trying to defend he actually compromised the Antiochene Christology At the Council of Ephesus St Cyril of Alexandria took the chair and began the proceedings before the arrival of the Syrian bishops or indeed of the papal legates Nestorius was deposed from his see of Constantinople and excommunicated his doctrines condemned and the Creed of Nicaea reaffirmed Furthermore the Council gave formal approval to the term Theotokos This is usually rendered in the west as Mother of God and Catholics used it every day in the Hail Mary Holy Mary Mother of God pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death Amen Eutyches 378454 was archimendrite of a large monastery at Constantinople His opposition to Nestorianism which separates the two natures of Christ so radically as to make him into two persons led him into the opposite heresy of monophysitism teaching that Christ had only one nature The monophysites held firmly to a phrase of St Cyril one Incarnate Nature of the Word As with Arianism so there are various degrees or varieties of monophysitism Eutyches himself seems to have held that after the incarnation there was only one nature in Christ and that nature was not consubstantial with us ie Christ had no human nature The phrase one nature after the union is commonly found in monophysite writers The process envisioned is that there is a preexistent Divine nature and a preexistent human nature which are united at the Incarnation to make a new nature This implies the belief in a preexistent immortal human soula notion congenial to Platonic Origenist Alexandrians but not at all to Antiochenes It also seems to be envisaged that these
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