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Lesson 3 contd.docx

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Concordia University
THEO 206

Lesson 3Israelthe seminomadic tribes who answered Gods call to use the divine lawthose who answer the call and strive to obey the law through the Torahcreation of the world by a supreme deity or Godpatriarchs and matriarchsMoses who spoke with God and led the people according to Gods commandmentsprophets who heard Gods warnings for sinnersPostbiblical evolving teachings and practices are collected in the Talmuda great compendium of Jewish law and loreYear 70 AD Romans destroy the Jewish temple in Jerusalem and disperse the Jews throughout the worldProblem of Historicity Scholars are uncertain about the historical accuracy of the early biblical stories because no other evidence exists about certain events and people genealogies mentioned in the BibleTRADITION HOLDSTorah Five Books of Moses were revealed by God directly to Moses who wrote them downSCHOLARS HOLDTorah was an oral tradition reworked and redacted by later authorsFinal form of Torah around 430 BCE created by Ezra the Scribe and Priest and his editorial teamIntent of later authors interpreting the formation of Israel from a religious point of view as the results of Gods actions in human historySimilarities of biblical stories with Mesopotamian legends creation the Garden of Eden the great flood the tower of BabelGenesis 1124Priestly source Godreferred to as Elohim dates from after 586 BCEcreation of heaven and earth by God in six dayscreation of material universecreation of man and woman in the divine imagehumans placed as masters of the earthGenesis 24The Yahwist source Godreferred to as Yahweh is thought to be an earlier account than Genesis 1124God is a transcendent creator without origin gender or form a being utterly different from the created worldThe Adam and Eve story theme of exile from paradise is present throughout Jewish historyeither punishment or straightening of the world through JewsNoahs story and the floodTen generations after Noahthe patriarchs Abraham Isaac Jacobthe matriarchstheir wivesSarah Rebecca Leah and RachelAbrahamborn in Chaldean City of Ur Mesopotamia migrated to Haran and then called by God to Canaanshows an example of obedience to Gods commandments through1circumcisionsign of the covenant with God2ready to sacrifice his son Isaac from Sarah upon request from GodAbrahams son Ishmael and his mother slave Hagar are driven into the desertIshmael is an ancestor of the ArabsAbraham is taught by God to be monotheisticJacob Isaacs second son receives the new name Israel after wrestling for a whole night with an angel of GodIsraelthe one who struggled with God1names are indicative of the persons character2a new name means a new character in this case of one reborn at a higher level of spiritualityJacob is given the promise that many nations will be born from himhe Twelve Tribes of IsraelJacobIsrael had 12 sons and one daughter from his two wivesThe 12 sons become heads of the twelve tribes of IsraelBiblical storiesJoseph and the Egyptian PharaohMoses and the burning bushExit from Egypt signs plagues Passover redemption from bondage crossing of the Red SeaGods presence as a pillar of cloudfire then Ark of the Covenantthe Ten Commandments1010970 King David establishes Jerusalem as the BCEcapitalKing Solomon builds a great Temple in JerusalemBurnt offerings of animals grain and oil 961931 were made to God in the TempleBCESolomon ended up an idol worshipper and womanizerDivision of Israel follows into the northern and southern kingdom Israel and JudahIsrael is conquered by Assyriamost Jews 722 BCEare sent into exile in AssyriaJudah is conquered by Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar and the Temple is destroyed586 BCEThe destruction of the Temple is interpreted as divine punishment for Israels infidelity toward GodKing Cyrus of Persia allows the Jews to 530 BCEreturn to the land of Israel515 BCEThe Temple is rebuiltEzra a priest and scribe coordinates the 430 BCEredaction of the TorahJudaism becomes contaminated with foreign influences
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