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BIOL 1010 (29)


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Dalhousie University
BIOL 1010

BIO NOTES Cells- single cells is the lowest to be able to live Tissues- cells grouped into tissue -groups of cells similar in structure and function epithelial tissue- layers of densely packed cells that sit on a base membrane -found – lining of organs and skin - helps people prevent injury - helps us retain moisture - fights off pathogens connective tissue- cells are sparsely distributed -fibers within the cells -they sit in an extra cellular matrix/material that can be liquid or solid loose connective tissue- holds organs in place fibrous connective tissue- fibers are denser then the loose connective tissue -have strength and flexibility (ex. Tendons, ligaments) cartilage- strong, rubbery extra cellular matrix -have flexibility and support (ex. Support the trachea, nose, ears) bone-extra cellular matrix is solid blood- cellular component -extra cellular matrix is plasma nervous tissue-neurons specialized tissue -receive, process, and transmit nervous signals muscle tissue skeletal muscle (striated)- voluntary muscles, big muscles we can move cardiac muscle- tactile muscle of the heart smooth muscle (visceral)- involuntary, cant control the movement (ex. blood vessels and digestive track) organs- different tissues functioning together -stomach- inside would have epithelia tissue, then smooth, then connective tissue. Organ system-groups of organs functioning together Movement is important to all animals -some stay in one spot and some have a lot of locomotion in order to have movement you need: a hard surface which the muscles will work (skeleton) tactile tissue (muscle) skeleton types hydrostatic skeleton- in things like worms -take compartments of the body fluid of the animal (it has a lot of pressure and becomes hard) exoskeleton- exterior of the animal (insects contain a lot of citron- a hard protein) endoskeleton-for us, buried in soft body tissue -perform several functions functions of the skeleton -support and shape -protection -movement structure of the skeletal muscle Muscle fibers­ long and run parallel to each other (cells) Myofibers­ run through the muscle cell also parallel  Mrofibril­ made up of smaller fibers ­called myofilaments mryfiliaments­ made up of repeating units called sarcomere sarcomere­ main functional unit of the muscle  thin (actin) 2 strands of the actin and 2 strands of regulatory thick (myosin) has a head and a long skinny tail (tails stuck together) relationship between the two… the sarcomere has 2 ends- anchoring proteins the thin filament are attached to the anchoring proteins –project to the center of the sarcomere thick filaments sit in the center of the sarcomere the interaction between the heads will pull the thin filaments to the center making the muscle contract anchoring protein at the end of the sarcomere are called z-lines thin is attached to the center of it, thick is attached to the m-line head sticking off of it Relaxed muscle- areas that have only thin filament -just thick filament areas -areas where they over lap -the heads will attach to the thin filament and pull the thin to the center Contracted muscle- no longer have only thin filament -no area with only thick -slide past each other (does not change in length) -just the sarcomere shorten as they are pulled towards each other and slide past each other -concentrate on a head with its relationship 1. Myosin head bind a molecule ofATP, in a low energy configuration (a particular shape) 2. ATPis hydrolyzed- energy is released, some of the energy is going to the head (when it happens it changes shape) • Thin filament- special sites called myosin binding sites- initially covered with regulatory protein, which means the head cant attach. In response to a motor neuron. Ca ions are released, it will interact with regulatory protein and expose the myosin binding site. 3. Head stand up, form a cross bridge-attached to each other • Energy is released, head is losing its height, but still attached to thin filament • Moves filament towards to the center of the sarcomere 4.Another molecule ofATP will bind to myo head and break bond, and the whole cycle will start again Every thick has 350 myo head. Each one is moving and changing at the same time, about 5 times every second Diet types -carnivores- eat meat ex. Insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, some birds (hawks and owls), mammals) -Teeth tell a lot about diet. Molars chewing and grinding Premolars- pointed (cusps) shear the meat Canines piercing grasping the flesh Incisors- Birds- adaptation- stout pointed bills(pull flesh off animal they are earing) large talons and claws Reptiles (snakes) adaptions- inject them with poison- front fangs -loosely hinge jaw to take in their prey. -loose ligaments ^ herbivores- eat plants ex. Koalas, grasshoppers (insects), fish, birds, mammals (deer) Huge difference in teeth between carnivores and herbivores -incisors- flat across the top (cut the plant material) -canines- not there or poorly developed -premolars molars (broad and ridged, grind the plant material) plants tough material because of cell walls Digestive track- longer gut then carnivore. Harder to digest so it can absorb of nutrients -send through food a second time (copper fagie- keep more nutrients) Adaptations- cows have micro organisms in their gum ( all animals that have -regurgitate omnivores eat plants and meat ex. Raccoons, birds, bears (mammals), humans Incisors-flat and not pointed Mixture- Canines and Pre/molars Feeding mechanisms –suspension and filer feeders take food particles from water Ex. Include- oysters, clams, use cilia to pull food particles to eat -baleen whales -Substrate feeders - live in or on their food ex. Larva eating their way through a leaf -Fluid feeders - suck fluids from a living host ex. Leach mosquito- human Humming bird-from flower Vampire bats- the eat blood. Take it from cows sheep etc., very adgile (run on ground) have sensors to detect heat. Gentle, animals could not even tell. Bulk feeders - eat large pieces of food Ex. We are bulk eaters -python 4 stages of food processing 1. indigestion =eating 2. digestion = breaking food into small molecules that the body can absorb i. needs to take place because the macromolecules are too large-in food not identical to the ones we need, break them down to the ones animals can use (rebuild them) -polysaccharides (big sugars) -> simple sugar -fats -> glycerol, fatty acids -protein -> amino acids -nucleic acids -> nucleotides -mechanisms of digestion -mechanical digestion (chewing- get it to expose the important enzymes) -chemical digestion (enzymatic hydrolysis) 3. absorption =cells take up small molecules 4. elimination = undigested material passes out of the digestive system human digestive system oral cavity (mouth) –mechanical and chemical digestion (first place where carb digestion takes places. (the only one) -salivary glands (food in your mouth meets 3 salivary glands) -saliva contains – mucus (water and mucins) glycoprotein is mucins (coats food and makes it easier to swallow and make it not sharp) buffers - neutralize acid, prevents teeth from decaying antibacterial agents (lysozyme), deal with any pathogens that come from food digestive enzyme (salivary amylase) begins carb hydrate digestion (break big polysaccharides into smaller ones) -tongue is checking the food (taste) also taking it and forming it into a ball(bolus) push it into the next location (throat) pharynx (throat) –leads to windpipe (trachea) and esophagus (goes to stomach) -flap of tissue (epiglottis) covers the windpipe -- -adaptation- flap of tissue- made of cartridge -When your not eating esophagus is closed windpipe open -esophagus -passes food from the pharynx to the stomach by peristalsis Long tube from pharynx to stomach –food passes through the cardiac orifice -(rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle,ATTOP OF ESPOGUSS Little ring of skeletal muscle voluntary (close it to prevent food from going down) -Carbohydrate digestion continuous –because food is still covered with saliva stomach-epithelium secretes gastric juice (hydrochloric acid and digestive =pepsin) - When food hits stomach amylase doesn’t’t work anymore -Stomach very elastic can extend to hold 2 liters of food and water Epithelium of stomach has: 1. Parietal cells à H + Cl = hydrochloric acid (HCl) -Release H and Cl seperatly –combine to form HCl (adaptation) 2. Chief cells à pepsinogen - Inactive form of pepsin -Way we get pepsinogen- Hydrochloric acid converts pepsinogen to pepsin, also pepsinogen works to create more pepsin 3. Mucus cells à mucus - Coating the epothemum that coats stoamch to help protect the lining of stomach from HCl (replaced every 3 days) Function of gastric juice ­ hydrochloric acid in gastric juice: o activates pepsin o denatures (unfolds) proteins (work on macromolecules- make it more venerable to pepsin o kills bacteria ­ pepsin in gastric juice (pepsin): o hydrolyzes proteins (digestion) o Large polypeptides breaks down to smaller (- food broken down into acid chime) -small intestine -location of: enzymatic break down (digestion) nutrient/water absorption -2 other places, mouth and stomach but majority in small intestine -3 parts duodenum –digestion (25 cm where most of the digestion happens) jejunum – absorption (most devoted to absorption) ileum – absorption digestion –accessory organs 1. pancreas secretes : - hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes -bicarbonate ions(help reduce the acidity (neutralize it) 2. liver secretes: bile no enzyme break down fat 3. gallbladder stores bile Polysaccharides are digested to  simple sugars while proteins are  digested to amino acids­ both add  water molecules to break down  bonds (hydrolysis)  structure of the small intestine Fingers that project off the big folds (villi) Sticking out of the cells sticking out more protects off of the epithelia (microvilli) -2 kinds of vessels -lacteal important to moving fat molecules from the lymph system, are part of lymph system (blood system) drains to the epithelial to the capillaries then into the blood drained into the hepatic portal vein (liver) absorption by : i) Passive transport - simple sugars (e.g. fructose) diffuse- epi to the blood ii) Active transport- - e.g. amino acids, glucose pumped by epithelial cells moved into the blood ­ … to capillaries à hepatic portal vein à liver ­ (products converted to molecules body can use, stored in liver, moved form liver to heart and pumped out throughout the body large intestine - water is absorbed (most in small intestine) - waste products of digestion (feces) moved by peristalsis and eliminated Colon-rectum- out of the body circulation and gas exchange heart 4 chambers 1.atria –receives blood. (2) 2. ventricles – pump blood (2) -blood that carries oxygen kept in the left hand side of heart -oxygen with CO2 waste product of cell respiration- contained in the right hand side of heart Superior vena cava –blood from upper parts of body Inferior- from bottom of body – right ventricle, then pumped return to heart from pulmonary veins aorta will deliver the oxygen rich blood to the body -Muscle thickness varies –atriums have thin muscle because blood is flowing in ventricles thick muscle left- pumps blood out right- just pump it to the lungs doesn’t have to go far. Valves The valves make sure the blood flows the right way 1. Atriovnevtricular valves- located between each atrium and ventricle (right and left) -prevent blood to go from a ventricle back into a atrium -when ventricles contract and prevents it from moving back to atrium 2. Semilunar valves-found at exits to the heart (2 of them) between the right ventricle and plenary arties and other one -prevent blood from moving backward arties leaving back into the ventricle -ventricle contracts it opens the semilunar valves blood go out, when the relax the valves will close. -sound of blood hitting the valves (hearing the heart beat) -when they don’t open or close all the way you can hear the difference blood vessels -3 types 1. arteries (arterioles-sub divide into these)- carry blood away from heart 2. veins Carry blood to the heart (venules-converge into veins to carry blood to heart ) 3.Capillaries-one cell layer thick-every tissue of the body in networks called capillary beds in all of our tissues. Very close to cells-movement of material into and out of blood heart-> arteries -> arterioles ->capillaries -> venules (small) -> veins (large) -> back to heart Arteries and veins have 3 layers: 1. outer layer (connective tissue with elastic fibers) 2. middle layer (smooth muscles with elastic fibers) 3. inner layer (endothelium (epithelium) with basement membrane) Capillaries have only a single layer: 1. endothelium with basement membrane Capillary bed in the middle -smooth and connective are thicker in artery then vein –blood coming from the heart is under some pressure from the contraction from the left ventricle –so the muscle and connective tissue must be stronger-the vein has blood pressure slowed down. -large veins have valves- prevent the blood going the wrong way in the vein -endothelium is very smooth- make sure the blood moves through vessels easily capillary function Controlled by constriction of : ­ Precapillary sphincters little bands of smooth muscle- found at the beginning of the capillary can constrict and prevent blood flow to the capillary bed. ­ Constriction of Arterioles-control of nerve impulse hormones etc. can constrict and reduce the blood flow Capillary exchange 1. Endocytosis and exocytosis- Material can be picked up by endocytosis have a little vessel around it and be removed from the exocytosis 2. Diffusion- Things like O2 and CO2 can diffuse across the single cell layer (into or out of the cell layer) 3. Bulk flow- Cells of capillary can have breaks and openings or clefts- because the blood is still under some pressure small molecules can be pushed out of little openings like H2O and O2 and small sugars into the interstitial fluid Mammalian Cardiovascular System 1. Pulmonary circuit- Movement of blood from the heart to lungs and back to heart 2. Systemic circuit- From heart out through the body (system) and back to heart pulmonary circuit- starts in right ventricle, go out the pulmonary arties to the left and right lung then to the capillary bed of the lung CO2 is given up and O2 rich blood pulmonary veins will return to the heart and end at the left atrium Systemic- starts in left ventricle, pump O2 rich blood out through the aorta and will switch to the upper and lower body to the capillary bed. O2 will be given up to the cells in body and then CO2 will take in and blood will go back to heart. Upper- drain the superior lower- inferior empty to the right atrium Blood 1. plasma –fluid -water (90%) -metabolites and wastes, CO2 vitamins nutrients -inorganic salts (blood electrolytes) Na Cl Ca bicarbonate ion – into plasma - buffer blood- keep pH stable - maintain osmotic balance, tendency for water to leave capillary from osmosis (inorganic salts help prevent it) - add to viscosity-thickness -plasma proteins - antibodies- protect body from against pathogens - lipid escorts- don’t dissolve need to be bound to the lipid escort - fibrinogens- clotting the blood 2. cellular elements -red blood cells (erythrocytes) -hemoglobin (250 million molecules/red blood cell) -Don’t have a nucleus, carry oxygen through the body –O2 doesn’t dissolve well in the plasma – transported by attaching to the hemoglobin (4 iron atoms-can bind 1 oxygen) -white blood cells (leukocytes) -In defending body from pathogens and immune response -platelets (cell fragments) -fibrinogen to fibrin -Parts of big cells in bone marrow – in clotting response -If blood vessel is cut, release clotting factors (convert fibrinogen to fibrin- forms the thread of a blood clot) in response to damage gas exchange The Mammalian Respiratory System
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