Topic 9: Quantitative Description of Aqueous Solutions
9.3 General Characteristics of Aqueous Solutions
- Many chemical reactions are analyses are carried out in a solution.
o Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
o Consists of solvent (normally the major component) and solute.
- An aqueous solution is in which water is the solvent.
- A non-aqueous solution describes solutions in which the solvent isn’t water.
- Water is an excellent solvent for compounds (as follows) that readily dissolves
o Ionic compounds
o Many polar molecules
- All soluble compounds ionic compounds are strong electrolytes (compounds which
don’t form ions in a solution are called non-electrolytes).
9.4 Solution Concentration
- Concentration of a solution refers to the amount of a solute dissolved in an amount
of solution (unit – mass percent, mole fraction, molarity).
- Mass percent, mole fraction, and molarity express proportion of solution relative to
the total amount of the sample (solute and solvent), regardless of sample size.
9.5 Mass Percent
- Expresses the relative mass of each substance in the mixture as a percentage of the
9.6 Mole Fraction (X)