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POLI 3311 (1)

Midterm Study Notes Feb.8-Mar.15

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Political Science
POLI 3311
Peter Arthur

Sept 21 Nature of Africa: - Kingdoms - Contact with other parts of the world (trade routes) - Rural than urban - Ethnic: Ethnicity was fluid - werent strict identities; malleable - Religion: Islam, traditional religions - Gender: women had more political rights; introduction of European patriarchal society changed that - Categories: cattle farmers, hunters/gatherers, fishing communities, urban areas Homelands Act (South Africa) - each ethnicity would get their own homeland Europeans: - first contact around 1471 by the Portuguese - 1502 - Atlantic slave trade - 1807, abolition of slavery - Slavery replaced by legitimate commerce; more profitable to trade with Africans than dealing in the slave trade; Enlightenment values - 1884-1885 - Scramble for Africa/Berlin Conference Consequences of Colonialism: - Brought it into the world economy - Primary products (promotion of primary products; imported manufactured items) - Subordinate partners, which contributed to underdevelopment - Subsistence economy - Export-driven infrastructure; not built out of good will but to help their export driven economy - Local entrepreneurial class; absence after colonialism - state takes on the role of entrepreneur. Needs capital to start up in the first place - Became a dumping ground market Dependency Theory - Political: - Lack of leadership - Artificial state (indirect rule) - Authoritarian state - people imbibing respect for authority - Patriarchy - women lacking a political and economic role - Military - Drew borders Social: - Tension: social mobility - Social groups - Traditional beliefs/religions done away with; introduction of Christianity, baptism - Psychological impact of colonialism - foreign seen as better - Language- loss of language = loss of identity; economic standing (poor cant afford to go through the education system and learn the new language) Nationalism: - Promises to soldiers (independence for fighting) - Broke down racist values as well as ethnic lines - Psychological barrier broken - took down the view of the invulnerable European - Soldiers came back and felt they were on equal footing - dying, shed blood just like the Europeans - Soldiers learned discipline/organization brought to the struggle for independence - Social services available to them were poor - UN formation [peace, diplomacy, right to self-determination] - Wave of decolonization (India, Sri Lank, throughout Asia); incentive for Africans to seek self-determination - Changed global superpowers (US/USSR); knocked out colonial powers - US Marshall Plan - help Europe reconstruct - Pan-Africanism/education - Urbanization - easier to mobilize, facilitate ideas - Voluntary associations Sept 28 - Development Theory and African Industrialization The Development Project in Theory and Practice: A Review of its Shifting Dynamics - idea of development was invented in the 1940s as part of a geopolitical project to liberate countries freed from colonialism away from communism - drawn out by capitalist democracies of Western Europe and North America - development was conceived in conditional terms as relative progress in per capita economic growth and in structural terms as industrialization and modernization - Development entails: - an increase in the rate of savings and investment - the accumulation of physical and financial capital - investment of this capital in industry - in the absence of weakness of an endogenous capitalist class, the state assumes the basic functions of capital - investment, entrepreneurship and management - nationalization of economic enterprises in strategic industries and sectors - an inward orientation of production, which, together with a secular increase in wages and salaries, will expand the domestic market - regulation of this and other markets and the protection of the firms that produce the market, insulating them from the pressures of the world economy - modernization of the production apparatus, the state and social institutions, reorienting them towards values and norms that are functional for economic growth - This approach assumed that economic growth would be accompanied by the adoption of Western cultural and institutional practices The 1970s - approaches to development identifiable today emerged - Left believed in radical, systemic change. Marxism/Latin American structuralism to create dependency theory - Development/underdevelopment as two sides of the same coin - socioeconomic conditions were linked to the position that a country happened to occupy in the world capitalist system - Development in the metropole was predicated on the underdevelopment of countries on the periphery - the development of underdevelopment (Frank 1967) - Reformists: relations of dependency are neither inherently exploitative nor block the possibility of periphery capitalist development; they just create a situation that favours a dependent or distorted pattern of capitalist development - Right criticized state-centered solutions to developmental problems and began to argue for global free trade as the engine for economic growth - Development would only address the problems of the poor when it involved the poor, i.e. local community organizations - Mainstream development program became liberal reformist (enhanced role of the state): - programs that would establish the social conditions of development (education, health, etc) - poverty-oriented strategy designed to meet the basic needs of the poor, based on; - reforms designed to improve access to societys productive resources (land reform, etc.) - redistributive growth with equity policies via taxation designed to redistribute more equitably market-generated incomes - an integrated program of rural development that corrected for the urban bias of government policies as well as the neglect of agriculture 1970s - Growth With Equity model advanced in the context of an extensive/ongoing debate on the role of inequality in the growth and development process and the relevant policy option priorities and tradeoffs (i.e. growth with efficiency, equity or equality)
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