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PSYCHOLOGY test 1.docx

14 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYO 1011
Professor
Jennifer Stamp

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Description
PSYCHOLOGY Scientific Method toAnswer Why 1. Identify a question 2. Gather information and form a hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis by conducting research 4. Analyze data, make conclusions 5. Build a body a knowledge, ask more questions diffusion of responsibility- presence of many by standers, no one wanting to take responsibility Kitty Genovese Was murdered and neighbors did not intervene D&L’s Experiment to test the diffusion of responsibility hypothesis -created an emergency situation (someone having a seizure) -subjects were told they would discuss “personal problems” -seated in spate rooms to communicate *measured 2 things hypothesis- tentative explanation or prediction about something that can be tested variable- any characteristic that can vary independent- is manipulated dependent- is measured operation definition-translates an abstract term into something observable and measureable statistics- the branch of mathematics that involves the collection, description, and interpretation of data descriptive-summarizes data and puts it into a usable form mean- the average of all scores median- the point in a distribution of scores that divides the distribution in half. 10, 8, 7, 4, 3 mode-the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores *if there are 2 numbers that occur the most, it is known as a bimodal distribution The Normal Distribution -normal refers to math equation relationship between mean, median, and mode in a normal distribution *mean median and mode are identical in a perfect normal distribution Cold Pressure Test -induce mild pain so that pain mechanisms can be researched *also used to induced mild stress so that you can study -effects of different variables on response to stress -effects of stress exposure on other variables cause, effect, control 3 characteristics of experiments -researcher manipulates one or more variables -researcher measures whether this manipulation influences other variables -researcher attempts to control extraneous factors (control conditions) -need to ensure that measures are reliable (consistent observations) -need to be unobtrusive to avoid subject expectancy effects people sometimes act different when they know they are being watched Methods of Research 1. case study 2. naturalistic observation 3. surveys 4. correlation Method Primary Feature Main Advantages Main Disadvantages Case studies An individual, - descriptive -poor method for group or event is information establishing cause and examined in detail -suggesting a effect relations hypothesis for -may not be further study representative -study rare things -relies on researchers in depth interpretation of subject Naturalistic Behavior is -detailed -poor method for observation observed in the information about establishing cause- natural setting the nature, effect relations frequency, and -if known about context of natural observers presence behaviors may influence behavior Surveys Questions or tests -respective sample -unrepresented are administrated to yields accurate samples can lead to a sample from a information about misleading results large population the population -bias can distort the findings Correlation studies Variables are -allows predictions -does not imply cause measured and the -help establish -bidirectional problem strength of the findings from -third variable association is experiments to problem determined (can generalize -can create a relate to naturalistic - can examine confusing of variables observations) issues that cannot be studied ethically or practically Experiments Independent -Examining cause- -Confounding of variables are effect relationships variables, placebo manipulated and -ability to control effect and their effects of extraneous factors -experimenter dependent variables expectancy’s can are measured effect the validly of conclusions Dorsal- visual (vision needed for perceiving) Ventral- perceptional (vision needed for acting) *correlation coefficient- range from +1to -1 -+/- direction of relation ship -positive, high X and high Y -negative high X and low Y -number closer to one is the strongest experimental and control groups experimental-receives treatment -can have ore then one control- not exposed to treatment -can have more the one *random assignment is best between subjects- different subjects are assigned to the experimental and control groups within subjects – same subjects are assigned to the experimental and control groups placebo effect- inactive or inert substance generalization- can result from a particular sample be generalized to other samples replication- process of repeating a study to determine whether results can be duplicated ethics- ethical standards exist to protect both humans and non human subjects avoid doing harm benefit>>risk Cells of the Nervous System Neurons-over 200 different neurons based on structure -billions of neurons in nervous system -receive, process, and send messages Gila-outnumbered neurons ( 10:1) -many functions that support neurons -remove toxins, manufacture nutrients ETC different structure for slightly different functions receive transmit send Soma- covered by the cell membrane -contains the nucleus -nucleus contains DNA dendrites- act like antennas and receive information from neighboring neurons axon-carries nerve signals away from soma myelin sheath-fatty cells that surround and insulate the axon nodes of ranvier- uninsulated gaps axon terminals-connection to the next cell -nuerotransmitter released here neuron has 2 things to do 1. transmit messages along neuron electrically I. from dendrites -> terminal 2. pass messages to next neuron chemically I. across a space called the synapse maintenance of the resting membrane potential the inside of the neuron is kept more negative then the outside because…. -an uneven ion distribution between the outside and inside of a neuron -closed Na channels, Na kept outside -sodium potassium pump- active pump that pumps out 3 Na for every 2 K it pumps in resting membrane potential -protein ions -sodium more abundant outside of cell and channels closed action potential -carries message from axon to terminal reversible depolarizing, repolarizing, and hyperpolarizing components retains full strength down axon -all or none- each is the same strength -strength I message coded by frequency sequence of events -if threshold reached (-55mV) voltage-sensitive channels (Na open) -Na driven into cell -RMP reverses briefly (40mV) k is driven out of cell DEPOLARIZTION sodium going in REPLOARIZTION potassium going out myelination and impulse speed myelin sheath increases speed ions only move though nodes of ranvier action potential skips down faster myelin is damaged in multiple sclerosis graded potentials -a stimulis that changes the RMP but not to the point of threshold -can be exciatory: makes cell less negative (depolarizes) -can be inhibitory: makes cell more negative (hyperpolarizes) NOT the same as an action potential Summary Action potentials Starts at axon One flavor, one size Necessary for transmitter release Graded potential Also called the postsynaptic potentials Starts at synapse (or sensory receptor) Can be excitatory or inhibitory Dissipate over time/distance Influence probability of action potential Presynaptic neuron (sending) Post synaptic neuron (receiving) Synaptic transmission 1. action potential triggers voltage changes in the axon terminal of presynaptic cell 2. events occur that cause synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and trigger exocytosis 3. neurotransmitter released into synapse 4. then binds to specified postsynaptic receptors on the membrane neurotransmitters Excitatory NT > depolarizes > increases likelihood of action potential Inhibitory NT > hyperpolarizes >decreases likelihood of action potential Termination of the response 1. reuptake a. via transporter proteins b. antidepressant interfere with reuptake of some transmitters 2. degradation a. via catabolic enzymes b. never gas interferes with degradation of a specific transmitter called acetylcholine The nervous System -peripheral nervous system- nerves to/from the central nervous system sensory info from periphery, motor output from central nervous system -central nervous system –brain and spinal cord coordinates information sensory neurons- carry information from sensory organs to spinal cord/brain interneurons- exist within sp
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