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PSYCHOLOGY test 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYO 1011
Professor
Jennifer Stamp
Semester
Fall

Description
Sensation involves transduction of the physical world into neural impulses. Perception involves binding these sensory impulses into a representation of the world. *brain neural impulse tatsuji inouye -responsible for treating patients who survived -based on the bullet wound he could tell where the damaged occurred -discovered the back of the brain was for vision, and it was organized ( scotomas ) blind spots. -correlated where the damage was and the part if vision affected. Sensory impulses are processed by distinct brain regions Physiological response (brain response)-> Sensory experience Physical stimulus -> Domain of sensory physiology (how activity affects your brain activity) Psychophysics- the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations about them that we experience. guatau fechnes -became physically ill -can he measure his mind??? -invented a method to measure the mind -relationship between physical and the sensations we experience Psychophysicists Study: 1) Detection (can you detect it) (sensory) Threshold The quantitative (minimum) amount of a stimulus required to be detected. absolute threshold-That intensity at which a stimulus is detected 50% of the time when graphed right shift-higher threshold -lower sensitivity . left shift- lower threshold -higher sensitivity. Hit- in reality yes and in the response was yes False alarm-in reality no and the response was yes Miss-reality was yes and response was no Correct rejection- in reality was no and response was no 2) Discrimination (difference) By how much must the stimulus intensity vary to just detect a change? Called Difference Threshold or Just Noticeable Difference (JND) -Different amount webers law- difference threshold varies to the standard stimulus in a linear way difference threshold = I K difference theshold =0.5 threshold = 3 K=difference in threshold/threshold K=0.5/3=0.166 difference threshold=4(0.166) =664 (4 g candy) ^ webers law For a stimulus to be detected as different from the comparison 50% of the time, the intensity of a comparison stimulus must change by a fixed proportion of the standard stimulus. Weber fraction=JND/%magnitude of the standard 3) Scaling Fechner’s Law -Uses Weber’s Law to reveal the relationship between the physical stimulus and sensation. --Sensation intensity increases proportional to the logarithm of physical stimulus intensity. VISION - Light is the result of electromagnetic waves. - Electromagnetic (light) waves can have different wavelengths. -Visible light takes up only a small amount of the electromagnetic spectrum. 3nm wave length is x-ray 3m wave length is FM radio nervous system can detect a small amount of the electromagnetic spectrum… visible spectrum. nervous system applies the color 400nm-700nm -need light to see, light bounces off things -broad spectrum-light from the sun -pigment molecules absorb light -it gets reflected to your eye black is the absence of reflected light EYE the white part- sclera coloured part-iris boarder between them-limbus centre of iris-pupil can change its size small-constriction in a bright room large-dilation in a dim room pupillary response^ 6 extra ocular muscles outside of the eye front view muscle closest to the nose-medial rectus lateral rectus other side of eye muscle attach interior oblique bottom of eye-inferior rectus top of eye-superior rectus muscle attach-superior oblique profile in the middle, top, and bottom muscles attach 3 components 1-light detecting device (ex. eye) 2-visual pathway 3-visual center eyebrow and eyelashes is to keep vision non impaired. keeps away debris and sweat cornea is transparent anterior chamber -aqueous humor accommodation -shape change bringing things into focus close has a fat shape far away has a thin shape becomes less flexible as you become older-harder (presbyopia) strabismus-miss alignment of the eye esotropia-one eye turns in exotropia-one eye turns out could fix by changing muscle length- brain finds a way to ignore it phototransduction triangluar part-outter segment pigment cell body(nuclus)- inner segment end of the thing-synaptic ending it can tell when it absorbs light, it changes. communicates to other cells by the synaptic ending light starts and then goes through rods-120 million -located in periphery -respond to dim light cones-6 million -located in fovea -respond to bright light lateral projecting horzontial and amacrine cells forward projecting bipolar and ganglion cells visual receptive field the region of visual space to which a cell will respond Colour VisionTrichromatic Theory - Young & Helmholtz (1800) Opponent-process Theory - Hering (1870) Dual process Theory - (1998) Hearing - The auditory system is designed to detect sound waves. - Air molecules are required to generate sound waves. Compression(top of wave )->refraction(bottom of wave )->compression etc.. produce a sound wave frequency high- waves short and tall low- longer. ex. 1 cycle per second= 1Hz , how many cycles pre second ex. 3 cycles/second= 3Hz frequency codes –pitch amplitude codes –loudness soft 3Hz, distance between peak and trough is smaller loud 3Hz, distance between peak and trough is greater decibels=dB 0dB is the smallest detectable sound 10dB is 10x smallest detectable sound 20dB=100X 30dB=1000X 60dB=conversation 120dB=concert 140dB=immediate damage simple wave- low frequency + simple wave- high frequency = complex wave Human can detect all frequencies between 20Hz and 20,000Hz (young adult) 20- 15000Hz (older adult) Middle ear bones-malleus -incus -strump cochlea-fluid eardrum (tympanic membrane)-moves back and forth amplifies the signal Asound causesthe basilar membrane to wave up and down Loudness is coded by (1) the degree of hair cell bending, and by (2) neurons that are activated only after a threshold level of hair cell bending. Frequency theory states that the frequency of nerve impulses sent to the brain match the frequency of the sound. Place Theory states that sound frequencies are coded at different positions along the basilar membrane. Sound localization Interaural Time Difference - difference in the time it takes a sound! to reach each ear.! -- When a sound reaches both ears at the same time it is perceived to originate from a source directly ahead. -- When the sound reaches the right ear first it is perceived to originate from a source to the right. -- As the interaural time difference increases, the source of the sound is perceived to deviate increasingly from center. Taste smell touch TASTE papillae- little bumps on your tounge, not taste buds the taste buds are on the sides of them. -tastants molecules flow across the surface of the tounge and go into the grooves formed by the papillae -inside the taste bud it is made of a lot, complicated machine. collection of cells. -support cells, -chemoreceptor cells, air like things called microvilli surface of microvilli are receptors, bind tastes -combines and 2 nerves facial and glossopharyngeal with great affinity, produces a response -produces activity across the tounge, the brain communicates it. -50 % of our taste comes from smell -taste buds small number around on your mouth approx. 9 thousand taste buds SMELL odorant molecule is what creates the sensation of the smell, outer smell. get sucked up into the nasal cavity. nasal cavity-inner smelling olfactory epithelium- a lot of blood vessels. very quick recovery. cells are called olfactory sensory neurons- they patrood out to the nasal cavity in to the cilia, called mucosa.(tips of cilia) -there for the sensation of smell, contains a lot of enzymes and stuff to protect your form illness. -provides of opportunity for odorant to become solubilizes. not all molecules will be solubilized. olfactory receptors- 350 different receptors- suited to a particular odor 40million receptors- allows us to detect about 10 thousand odors defactory bulb-make connections with olfactory bulb neurons and their axons form what is called a olfactory nerve. many different receptors. starts to put it back together, pattern of activity. TOUCH skin is the largest organ in the body. 2 meters^2 4kg. layers of skin 1-epidermis 2-dermis 3-subcutis teeth nails hair and brain dont have touch neurons. cannot feel if people touch it some parts are more sensitive then other parts- inhomogeneous of the receptors converting physical stimuli into neural impulses chemo transduction smell taste mechano transduction touch audition photo transduction vision outer-pigment start out with pigment (rhodopsin) absorbs light light is made up of photons 1)photon is absorbed by pigment (rhodopsin) 2)as it absorbs light, it changes it structure. causes a protein inside the cell to become activated( TRANSDUCTION) one can active 800 trandsucin 3)phosphodiestrase activated 70 can be activated 4)CGMP (goes down) eat up or clean break apart (broken down) because of the channels of the side inward-only when CGMP is bound to it, if none it will close removed from the cell because of the CGMP-it is blocked, so no positive going in. so positive ions are going out, so the cell becomes more negative. so neurones become more positive. outward channel-all the positive changes inside the cell go out of the cell though this channel. PERCEPTION Brain activity of the orgin of our perception -attention shapes your perception dr. newsome- he did an experiment got a monkey to look at a computer screen that contained 100 dots trained him to look at the screen and fixate on the screen some of the dots would move left or right, and all the other dots would move randomly. certain collection of neurons prefer certain movement of the dots. is our perception a result of brain activity? brain says left, eyes say right. the neurons produce a signal stronger then the stimulus. scientific evidence that shows that -Attention to particular sensations permits filtering of less important sensations. -Attention can be consciously directed, or guided by features inherent within sensory input. shadowing- left and right people talking get tested on only one, you are able to ignore the one side your not paying attention to. can turn your attention to one way or the other. some stimulus can shift your attention top down is the interpation of the binding of the information binding sensory input for perception gestalt princpals -similarty (our brains group like objects) -proximity (grouped together) -closure (wanting to close objects) -continuity Perceptual errors result when our perceptual system applies Gestalt principles incorrectly. Consciousness Our moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our surroundings. It is (1) subjective, (2) dynamic, (3) and self-reflective. Psychodynamic Theory:
-Conscious -Preconscious -Subconscious Cognitive Theory:
 -Conscious – Unconscious -Controlled andAutomatic Processes are harmonious Emotional Unconscious - emotional state influenced by unconscious events
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