Chapter 1, Lecture 1 material:
Social psychology = social influence, how people are influenced by their interpreations
and social eniroment.
People often underestimate the power of social influence
Social psychology Personality Schology Sociology
The study of individuals Characteristics that The study of the society as a
within a society make individuals unique whole
what process is involved to and different from one Social institutions and
affect somebody to join a cult another social class
Experimental data is used Archival and surveys are
The immediate social situation Long time frame
Interested in individual Interested in individual
How people behave in groups How people behave in groups
Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to underestimate situational factors and
overestimate internal factors when explaining others’ behaviour
Cooperation vs Competition study:
Two sets of students played the same game, but the name of the game and directions were
different. The first game was called The community game, you and your partner try to
win together. The second game was called the Wall Street Game, you and your partner
were competing against each other… those playing in the community game chose
cooperative strategies much more, and those who played the Wall Street Game were more
Chapter 2 and lecture 2 material:
There are 2 types of settings in which research is conducted:
1. natural environment, or rather – fieldwork which is less reliable
2. laboratory research – experiments
Types of studies include:
1. Observational: what is the nature of x? 0 systematically recording behavior
2. Correlational: relationship between x and y?
3. Experimental: is x caused by y?
Interjudge reliability: agreement between 2 or more people that the outcome is valid and
not subjective to the researchers impressions.
Archival analyses: examining documents and archives ▯observational method. Biases in survey research include the literary digest 1936 election poll: political poll to
see who would win, they asked people through getting contact info from phone numbers
and car registration – they said that landon would win by a landsline in the paper, but
rossevelt won by a landslide instead – they didn’t take into account that the majority
didn’t have hones or cars because of the great depression… they went out of business.
Shows that a sample does not = the population it can characterize an unrepresentative
Probability level (PValue) – a number that tells researchers how likely their findings
occurred by change and not from independent variables.
Internal validity: certainty about the independent variable being the only affect in the
Cover Story: description of the purpose of a study that’s given to participants that differs
from the true purpose.
Basic research: studies to find the best answer to why people behave in a certain way
Applied research: studies to solve a particular social problem: the spread of HIV
1. respect dignity of participants
2. informed consent that’s documented from participant
3. minimize harm
4. freedom to withdrawal
5. privacy and confidentiality
6. use of deception only if needed, after experiment the participant must be told of
the actual study.
Chapter 3, Lecture 3 material:
Automatic thinking: unconscious, unintentional, involuntary and effortless thinking, this
helps us with new situations by relating them to previous experiences.
Schemas: produce low effort thining metnal structures used to organize information
about the social word. They influence information we notice, think about and remember.
Schemas allow us to organize info into themes and topics. Example: when we go to a
fast food restaurant, we don’t sit down and wait to be served on, even if it’s one we’ve
never been to before our schema allows us to know you have to go and order yourself.
Types of schemas:
Object schemas: objects may appear different but we can still categorize them… such as
chairs, they may look different but they all go into the same category of a chair.
Selfschema: what guides our thought process and decision making about ourselves.
Relational schemas – how we relate to others, if you meet a higher status person (a CEO) you
might have an idea of how you should behave around them, Korsakov syndrome: difficulty forming schemas, everything you encounter is confusing
and unlike anything you’ve ever known.
Schemas can be accessed in three ways:
1. chronically accessable/active – if you’re mother was an alcoholic, when you see
somebody with a trait of alcoholism, you’re more likely to associate it with
alcoholism apposed to something else.
2. If they’re related to a current goal – studying for your abnormal behavior test, you
see a guy with traits seen in a mental illness you’re more likely to associate his
behavior with a mental illness apposed to something else.
3. Temporarly accessable because of a recent experience: it’s primed by something
you were recently thinking about.
Priming: recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait or conept –
making it morel ikely you’ll use this information to interpret a new event. The thoughts
have to be applicable before they can prime you.
An example of priming:
• Study with candy and money/number counting – those who counted money, then had to do a
candy test ate 50% more then those who counted paper with #’s on them. This is priming –
later a women dropped a stack of stuff some of those who counted the money didn’t help
hwere as those who counted paper did. It changes the way we feel. Also, later, there was a
bucket of water, those who counted the money had a pain reducing affect – they could put their
hand in the ice for longer. Money = power and self reliance.
Perseverance effect: peoples beliefs persist after original evidence is discredited.
Base rate: likelihood a chosen person will fit into a certain category, yet when
personality description is present, base rates are often ignored.
Judgemental heuristics: mental shortcuts people take to make judgements quickly and
Availability heuristics: judgements on the ease in which you can bring something to
mind… list of names ¼ are famous people, later students are asked to repeat the names
previously listed… they are more likely to remember the famous names even though
there were less than average names.
Representativeness heuristic: classification based on similarities to typical cases
Counter factual thinking: mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of
imagining what might have been. We are more likely to engage in this type of behavior if
we just avoided the situation – you’re more likely to use it if you missed your plane by 5
minutes apposed to an hour. The more you engage in counterfactual tinking the more you
become distressed. In the Olympics silver medalists are less happy with themselves as
bronze because they think “if only i.. I would have gotten gold”. = high effort thinking Thought suppression: attempt to avoid thinking about things one wants to forget.
Automatic part of process = monitoring process: searches for evidence that unwanted
thought is about ot intrude the conscious. Then operating process: attempt to distract
oneself consciously of the undesirable thought. When you’re trying really hard not to
think about something you’ll think about it more often.
Unconscious thinking is needed for our survival and protection, however it can often be
inaccurate. Spit brain patients have their corpus coloses severed, which is vital to the
exchange of information from the left and right hemispheres of the brain. If these
patients see the word WALK to the right of their bodies, they automatically walk and
don’t know why… they will often lie when asked and say they were thirsty.
Over confidence barrier: the tendency to be more confident than correct
Amygdala = fear response, emotional responses.
If you see something that looks like a snake, and you’re scared of snakes you might jump out of the
way… then you look at it after and it’s only a piece of rope… it’s immediate/rapid but sometimes
Chapter 4 and lecture 4 material:
We automatically mimic others facial expressions, especially if we like