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Dalhousie University
PSYO 2090

developmentaltest311122013Moral development Moral reasoning according to piaget and KohlbergMoral development The process of leaning to distinguish between right and wrong in accordance with cultural values Dimensions of moral development Moral emotionspsychoanalytic theories Freud Conscience List of things good girls and boys dont do eg Lying Ego ideal List of things good girls and boys go eg Listening to parents Disobey conscienceguiltFail to live up to ego idealshame Guilt and shame emerge before age 6 BUT link between moral emotions and moral behavior is weaker than Freud thought Moral behaviorlearning theories Operant conditioning model Reward child morally acceptable behaviorPunish child for morally unacceptable behavior More effect to combine with reasoned explanations Learn behavior from models Moral reasoningcognitivedevelopmental theoriesPiaget Moral reasoning The process of making judgments about the rightness or wrongness of specific acts Watched children playing gamesYounger had less understanding of rulesIdentified two stages According to cognitive development theories Morality of a behavior depends on underlying cognitions intentions and motivationsChanges in moral reasoningbasis of moral development Piaget moral reasoning Younger than age 8 Moral realism stage Children believe that rules are inflexible Rules are unchangeableset by authorities All rule violationspunishment Morality judgments are based on consequences 810 years varies transition period child plays an active role in their transition to moral relativism by age 11 could be young as 8 moral relativism stage rules can be changed through social agreement rules can be changed if parties agree punishment depends on situation morality judgments should consider intent evaluating broadly piaget theory is supported increasingly consider motives and intentions level of moral reasoning associated with cognitive task performance however in young children underestimated understanding of intentions overestimated deference to authority for moral rulesunderstanding intentions morality judgments consider intention by age 3 though judgments still influenced by outcome understanding rulesmoral rules rule that reflect universal principles eg Dont hit people conventional rules arbitrary socially defined rules eg Dont wear your pajamas to school Kohlbergs moral reasoning moral hypotheticals the Heinz dilemma should be steal the drug or not weighing the two transgressionslevel 1 preconvention morality moral judgments are dominated by consideration of what will be punished and what feels goo d
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