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Hormones and Behavior test 1.docx

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PSYO 2170

01302014What are hormones Chemical messengers that are able to travel out to the peripheralTravel through the blood stream Send messages to different parts of the body Hormones in the newsEstrogen replacement therapy Neuroprotective effects Earlier puberty Using steroids for muscles ex Growth hormone testosterone replacement therapy Viagra Endocrine hormones in turn have profound effects on brain functioning through feedback systems Neuroendocrine system influences physiological and behavior responses Many endocrine glands are influences by the pituitary AKA master glandPituitary is controlled by many hormones secreted from the hypothalamus Three different communication systemsNervous system Nerve cells communicate through the release of neurotransmittersControls releases of hormones that can influence the release of cytokines from the immune system Endocrine systemEndocrine glands secrete hormonesImmune system Immune system operates though the release of cytokines Modulate both neural activity and the release of hormones by the release of cytokines Cognitive sensory stimuli influences neural immune and endocrine activity Non cognitive stimuli influences the systems through their action on the immune system The release of hypothalamic hormones Regulated by neurotransmitters released from nerve cells neurons from the brainControls behaviorHormone feedbackFrom specific nerve cells can modulated by the level of specific endocrine hormones in the circulation Hormones regulate the release of neurotransmitters Adrenal steroid hormones glucocorticoids Involved in response to stressHormonesOrganizationalorganize the system of how it will develop if it is not present it will develop differently unable to have their action Arnold studied castrated chickens Malenormal group develop male like characteristics aggressive mating appearanceMalecastrated before they develop appear more like female smaller male characteristics not aggressive not matingMaleremoved testis and replaced into the abdominal cavity still developed normally Activationalon going changes of behavior how they change behaviorBody chemistry Hormonessecreted from endocrine glands and the brain secreted in two placesNeurotransmitters Released by nerve cells in the brain and peripheral nervous system exclusive Neuropeptides Released by the cells of neurons or endocrine glandsCytokines Released by the cells of the immune system B and T cells macrophagesEnvironmental stimulusby the cerebral cortex and other brain areas that influence the neuroendocrine system Rapid neuromuscular responseresulting in an immediate behavioral change Complex neuroendocrine changes Hypothalamic adrenal responseinvolves an immediate release of many different hormones which circulate through the blood stream and stimulate their target cells In the heart liver skeletal muscles adipose tissue and brain Hormones exert the feedback system to the hypothalamus and pituitary glandNeuralendocrine interactions Environmental stimulus Activates sensory nerves higher brain centersnerve impulses neurotransmitters get releasedhave a positive feedback to the hypothalamus CRH
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