Hormones and Behavior II.docx

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PSYO 2170

HormonesandBehaviorII02252014Neurotransmitter and neuropeptide control of hormones Neurotransmitter control of the endocrine systemNeurotransmitterserotonin Hypothalamic hormonesCRF feedback on neurotransmitterAndenohypophyseal hormonesATCH feedback on the hypothalamic hormones Endocrine glandscortisol negative feedbackHPA axis as an exampleSerotonin regulates how much CRF is released which changes how much ACTH gets released which finally changes how much cortisol gets releasedAct on receptor action at receptor changes cell its onSome chemicals steroid hormones act on intracellular receptorsEach of the hormones that get secreted can all go back and act on previous receptorsnegative feedbackFeedback mechanisms decrease further functioning of the systemDepiction of the main centre of control for all hormone systemsSON and PVN have neurosecretory cells where they are able to project into posterior pituitaryThose nuclei and others also have parvicellular neurosecretory cells which release hormones into the circulation4 ways nerves act to regulate hypothalamic hormones through synapse in a neural pathway carrying sensory input to input from the brain regions INDIRECT 1a recret synapse of axons from extra hypothalamic neurons to neuroendocrine cells on the CELL BODY or 2dendrite a direct synapse on AXONS of the neruosectory cell 3neurotransmitters can be released into hypopyseal PORTAL veins and act directly on the pituitary gland 4dopamine pituitary gland noradrenalin TSHLH FSHGH lower oxytocin and vasopressin dopamine lower TSH PRL alpha MSH GHGABA lower everything NTs primarily influence hypothalamus which influences the release of the releasing hormones which then influences amount of hormoneHPA axisCRHACTHcorticosteroidsWhat regulates CRH releasestressSCN circadian rhythmscortisol has a normal daily rhythm of change is effected by sleep deprivation by women in follicular phase of menstrual cycle cells here fire in bursts and you get an increase in bursts right before you wake upbursts act by changing NT levels which go on to change levels of other hormones hereBetaendorphin is released simultaneously with ACTH synthesized by the same cellsPulsatile secretion of ACTH and cortisol in humans ACTH changes precede the changes in cortisolBursts right before wake timeWhen cortisol increases it is whats responsible for inhibitingdeclining bursts through negative feedbackThyroid systemStress decreases TRH release being cold increases TRH releaseCold causes NTs mainly norepinephrine and ACTH to allow thermogenesiscreation of heatLeptin also acts leptin feedback from fat cell can regulate energy expenditure and food intakeSomatostatin has a negative influence on TSH at level of pituitaryReproductive systemGnRHLH and FSH release from pituitaryact on male and female gonadsSystem sensitive to light stress mating exercise there is a circadian input from SCNMajor excitatory input is from glutamate major inhibitory pathway is from GABAProlactin is important in lactation but also has other regulatory rolesSecreted from anterior pituitaryInhibitor of dopamine at hypothalamic leveldopamineThere is also a hypothesized prolactin releasing hormone from hypothalamus but it has not been specifiedMajor regulators in systemestrogen 5HT noradrenaline acetylcholine GABA opiates somesome
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