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Douglas College
MUSC 1220
K.Barrington- Foote

MUSC 1220 Western Music II: 1600-1800 Study Guide for Second Exam 1607 – Claudio Monteverdi’s opera L’Orfeo is premiered at the Ducal Palace of Mantua 1637 – The first public opera house, Teatro San Cassiano, opens in Venice allowing musical theater to be presented for and attended by a paying public with operas being performed in carnival season Aria – (Italian “air”) In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, any section of an Italian strophic poem, for a solo singer – Lyrical monologue in an opera or other vocal work such as cantata and oratorio – Eventually became paired with the recitative – At the time of “Le nuove musiche,” referred to any written setting or improvised oral performance of strophic poetry – NAWM 68a, 69a, 71b, 86b, 89b – CHWM 190-191, 195-197, 199, 205-206, 210, 216 Arioso – Short, aria-like passage – Style of vocal writing that approaches the lyricism of an aria but is freer in form – Lies somewhere between recitative and aria style – Often serves as a transition between recitatives and arias – NAWM 72 (p. 454) – CHWM 197 Basso continuo – (Italian “continuous bass”) System of notation and performance practice, used in the Baroque period, in which an instrumental bass line is written out and one or more players of keyboard, lute, or similar instruments fill in the harmony with appropriate chords or improvised melodic lines – Composer would write only the melody and bass, leaving it to the performers to fill in the appropriate chords or inner parts – A basso continuo could be realized by plain chords to elaborate improvisations – CHWM 182, 185-186, 188, 190-191, 201-202, 208, 211, 216, 220-222, 232 Bernini, Gian Lorenzo (1598-1680) – Italian artist and a prominent architect who was the leading sculptor of the Baroque age – Designed the Piazza San Pietro, the piazza and colonnades in front of St. Peter’s Basilica and the interior decoration of the Basilica – CHWM 207, 209 Binary form – A form comprised of two complementary sections, each of which is repeated. The first section usually ends on the dominant or the relative major, although it may end on the tonic or other key; the second section returns to the tonic. MUSC 1220 Western Music II: 1600-1800 – NAWM 62, 85b-e, g-h – CHWM 207, 226-227, 235 Caccini, Giulio (1551-1618) – Italian composer, teacher, singer, instrumentalist and writer of the very late Renaissance and early Baroque eras – He was one of the founders of the genre of opera, and one of the single most influential creators of the new Baroque style – Published a collection of monodies and songs for solo voice and basso continuo in 1602 called Le nuove musiche – Wrote music for three operas – Euridice (1600), Il rapimento di Cefalo (1600) and Euridice (1602), though the first two were collaborations with others (mainly Peri for the first Euridice) – NAWM 67 – CHWM 186-187, 189-191, 193-194, 196, 201, 203 Cantata – (Italian “sung”) In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a vocal chamber work with continuo, usually for solo voice, consisting of several sections or movements that include recitatives and arias and setting a lyrical or quasi-dramatic text th – The 17 -century Italian cantata was a distinctly secular work intended for performance at private social gatherings; and it was composed, most often, for a solo voice accompanied by only basso continuo – NAWM 72, 89 – CHWM 205-207 Clavecin – French term for harpsichord. A person who performs on or composes works for the clavecin is known as a clavecinist. – NAWM 85 Concerted madrigal – Early-seventeenth-century type of madrigal for one or more voices accompanied by basso continuo and in some cases by other instruments – The development of this style was one of the defining features of the beginning of the musical Baroque era – CHWM 201, 204 Concerted motet – A motet done in a style marked by grand scale and strong contrast – A motet entirely in stile concertato – Can be called a sacred concerto – NAWM 74, 75, 83 Concerto – Beginning in the seventeenth century, ensemble of instruments or of voices with one or more instruments, or a work for such an ensemble – Composition in which one or more solo instruments (or instrumental group) contrasts with an orchestral ensemble MUSC 1220 Western Music II: 1600-1800 Doctrine of the Affections – Popular Baroque theory in musical aesthetics concerned with expression of emotions – Essential idea is that just one unified and “rationalized” affect should be aimed at by any single piece or movement of music, and that to attempt more was to risk confusion and disorder – There are three pairs of opposing emotions that make six “affects” all together: love/hate, joy/sorrow, wonder/desire – CHWM 175 Florence – Hosted a brilliant period of musico-theatrical innovation at the dawn of the seventeenth century that led to the flowering of early opera – CHWM 182, 188-196 Ground bass (basso ostinato) – (Italian “persistent bass”) A pattern in the bass that repeats while the melody above it changes – Most ostinato basses were in triple or compound meter, usually two, four, or eight measures long – Lament bass was a popular ostinato bass used to convey sorrow – CHWM 201, 205, 218 Idiomatic – Exploiting the particular capabilities of the instrument or voice for which it is intended. These capabilities may include timbres, registers, and means of articulation as well as pitch combinations that are more readily produced on one instrument than another (e.g., a glissando on the slide trombone as opposed to a valved brass instrument) L’Euridice – The earliest opera to survive in a complete score – Ottavio Rinuccini wrote the text (called the libretto), and Jacopo Peri set it to music – In the first performance, some of the music was replaced by Giulio Caccini’s setting of the same libretto – Tirsi’s song (a) to Hymen, god of marriage, is an aria, a term that at the time simply designated a strophic song. It is introduced by music that was referred to as a sinfonia, a term that then simply meant a piece for instrumental ensemble. A shortened version of the sinfonia appears as a ritornello, or instrumental refrain, after each stanza. The undulating parallel thirds above a drone indicate the pastoral setting for the drama, a rural landscape populated by shepherd. The pastoral associations strongly suggest the use of two flutes or recorders. – By contrast, Dafne’s speech and the reactions to it of Arcetro and Orfeo (b) are examples of the new style of recitar cantando, later known as recitative. The voice imitates the inflections and rhythms of speech, and the chords specified by the basso continuo simply provide support, having no rhythmic profile or formal plan of th
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