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NSG3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Central Tendency, Face Validity, Standard Deviation

health sciences
Course Code
Hall- Fanshawe College
Study Guide

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Research final review
Quantitative research:
Formal, objective, systematic process where numerical data is obtained
Describe, compare, predict a phenomenon
Descriptive- structured observations/survey, for phenomenon, situation or group
Exploratory- gain new insights, discover and increase knowledge about phenomenon
(with little information on the topic)
Casual- experimenting to assess cause and effect
Casual statements:
X precedes Y
X and Y are correlated
Everything else is controlled or eliminated. No extraneous variables impacting outcome
We never prove something. Gather evidence to support the claim
Qualitative Quantitative
Understanding Prediction
Interview/observations Survey/questionnaires
Discovering frameworks Existing frameworks (theoretical/conceptual)
Theory generating Theory testing
Textual Numerical
Quality of informant>sample size Sampling/sample core issues for reliability
Rigor: trustworthiness and authenticity Rigor: reliability and validity
Subjective Objective
Inductive Deductive
May be included in the research Excluded from the research
Research designs intro:

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Directs research process (who, what, when, where and how)
Located in method section
Purpose: answer questions, understand biases, direct analysis, direct interpretation
Develop study to bridge gap for what is unknown
Literature review is crucial-ethical approval and funding
Good designs-elements:
Objectively conceptualized- literature review reflect who what when where why
Accurate- answers research question accurately
Feasible- large samples to answer question within time and funding
Control- control potential bias to give valid results
Internally valid- results are believable
Externally valid- results are useful for other people/situations
Quantitative research designs:
oRandomized control trials
oDescriptive (correlational, univariate)
oCorrelational (retrospective/prospective, natural, path analytical)
Models of analysis: parametric vs. non-parametric
Randomly assigned participants: experimental
Control group/more than 1 measurement: quasi/pre-experimental
No.. non-experimental

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Experimental design:
Intervention that is controlled or delivered
There is an experimental and control group
There is random assignment to groups
* 1-3 true experimental
*1-2 quasi-experimental
*just 1 pre-experimental
Random assignment to groups (internal validity issue)
Equal extraneous variables in both groups
Random selection from population to sample (external validity issue)
Equal extraneous variables in sample that are true for population
Concept of variable:
Measurable characteristic that varies among subjects
Independent variable- interventions/presumed cause (salt intake)
Dependent variable- outcome/presumed effect (blood pressure)
Extraneous variables/covariate- alternative causes (exercise)
Concept of control:
Decrease error and the influence of unwanted extraneous variables
Increase probability of accurate findings and reflect true relationship between IV and DV
Control group: not exposed to intervention, eventually all groups exposed to the same
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