Terms for exam 2

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Lakehead University
PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Psychology chapter 2 terms Neuron:An individual nerve cell Dendrites: Neuron fibers that receive incoming messages. Soma: The main body of a neuron or other cell. Axon: Fiber that carriers information away from the cell body of a neuron. Axon terminals: bulb-shaped structures at the ends of axons that form synapses with the dendrites and somas of other neurons. Resting potential: The electrical charge of a neuron at rest. Threshold: The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered. Action potential: The nerve impulse. Ion channels: Tiny openings through the axon membrane. Negative after-potential:Adrop in electrical charge below the resting potential. Myelin:Afatty layer coating some axons. Saltatory conduction: The process by which nerve impulses conducted down the axons of neurons coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer. Synapse: The microscopic space between two neurons, over which messages pass. Neurotransmitter:Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons. Receptor sites:Areas on the surface of neyrons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones. Neuropeptides: Brain chemicals, such as enkephalins and endorphins, that regulate the activity of neurons. Neural networks: interlinked collections of neurons that process information in the brain. Neuroplasticity: The capacity of the brain to change in response to experience. Central nervous system (CNS) :the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system (PNS):All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Nerve:Abundle of neuron axons. Neurilemma:Alayer of cells that encases many axons. Somatic nervous system (SNS): The system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs. Autonomic nervous system (ANS): The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands. Sympathetic branch: The branch of theANS that arouses the body. Parasympathetic branch: The branch of theANS that quiets the body. Spinal nerves: major nerves that carry sensory and motor messages in and out of the spinal cord. Cranial nerves: Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord. Reflex arc: The simplest behavior, in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response. Sensory neuron: A neuron that carries information from the senses toward the CNS. Neurogenesis: The production of new brain cells. Computed tomographic scan (CT scan):Acomputer-enhanced X-ray image of the brain or body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):An imaging technique that results in a three-dimensional image of the brain or body, based on its response to a magnetic field. Neurological soft signs: Subtle behavioral signs of brain dysfunction, including clumsiness, an awkward gait, poor hand-eye coordination, and other perceptual and motor problems. Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue. Localization of function: The research strategy of linking specific structures in the brain with specific psychological or behavioral functions. Clinical case study:Adetailed investigation of a single person, especially one suffering from some inju Electrode:Any device (such as a wire, needle, or metal plate) used to electrically stimulate or destroy nerve tissue or to record its activity. Ablation: Surgical removal of tissue. Deep lesioning: Removal of tissue within the rain by use of an electrode. Electroencephalograph (EEG):A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain. Positron emission tomography (PET):An imaging technique that results in a computer-generated image of brain activity, based on glucose consumption in the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI): MRI technique that records brain activity. Cerebral Cortex: The outer layer of the brain. Corticalization:An increase in the relative size of the cerebral cortex. “Split-brain” operation: Cutting the corpus callosum. Lobes of the cerebral cortex:Areas on the left and right c
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