Psychology chapter 2 terms
Neuron:An individual nerve cell
Dendrites: Neuron fibers that receive incoming messages.
Soma: The main body of a neuron or other cell.
Axon: Fiber that carriers information away from the cell body of a neuron.
Axon terminals: bulb-shaped structures at the ends of axons that form synapses with the dendrites and
somas of other neurons.
Resting potential: The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.
Threshold: The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.
Action potential: The nerve impulse.
Ion channels: Tiny openings through the axon membrane.
Negative after-potential:Adrop in electrical charge below the resting potential.
Myelin:Afatty layer coating some axons.
Saltatory conduction: The process by which nerve impulses conducted down the axons of neurons
coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer.
Synapse: The microscopic space between two neurons, over which messages pass.
Neurotransmitter:Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons.
Receptor sites:Areas on the surface of neyrons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or
Neuropeptides: Brain chemicals, such as enkephalins and endorphins, that regulate the activity of
Neural networks: interlinked collections of neurons that process information in the brain.
Neuroplasticity: The capacity of the brain to change in response to experience.
Central nervous system (CNS) :the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS):All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
Nerve:Abundle of neuron axons.
Neurilemma:Alayer of cells that encases many axons. Somatic nervous system (SNS): The system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense
Autonomic nervous system (ANS): The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal
organs and glands.
Sympathetic branch: The branch of theANS that arouses the body.
Parasympathetic branch: The branch of theANS that quiets the body.
Spinal nerves: major nerves that carry sensory and motor messages in and out of the spinal cord.
Cranial nerves: Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord.
Reflex arc: The simplest behavior, in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response.
Sensory neuron: A neuron that carries information from the senses toward the CNS.
Neurogenesis: The production of new brain cells.
Computed tomographic scan (CT scan):Acomputer-enhanced X-ray image of the brain or body.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):An imaging technique that results in a three-dimensional image of
the brain or body, based on its response to a magnetic field.
Neurological soft signs: Subtle behavioral signs of brain dysfunction, including clumsiness, an
awkward gait, poor hand-eye coordination, and other perceptual and motor problems.
Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue.
Localization of function: The research strategy of linking specific structures in the brain with specific
psychological or behavioral functions.
Clinical case study:Adetailed investigation of a single person, especially one suffering from some inju
Electrode:Any device (such as a wire, needle, or metal plate) used to electrically stimulate or destroy
nerve tissue or to record its activity.
Ablation: Surgical removal of tissue.
Deep lesioning: Removal of tissue within the rain by use of an electrode.
Electroencephalograph (EEG):A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the
Positron emission tomography (PET):An imaging technique that results in a computer-generated image
of brain activity, based on glucose consumption in the brain.
Functional MRI (fMRI): MRI technique that records brain activity. Cerebral Cortex: The outer layer of the brain.
Corticalization:An increase in the relative size of the cerebral cortex.
“Split-brain” operation: Cutting the corpus callosum.
Lobes of the cerebral cortex:Areas on the left and right c