Terms for exam 3

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PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Psychology Chapter 3 terms Development psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death. Heredity (“Nature”): The transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to offspring though genes. DNA:Amolecular structure that contains coded genetic information. Chromosomes: Thread-like “coloured bodies” in the nucleus of each cell that are made up of DNA. Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNAthat carry hereditary information. Dominant gene:A gene whose influence will be expressed only when it is paired with a second recessive gene. Polygenic characteristics: Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination. Maturation: The physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system. Readiness:A condition that exists when maturation has advanced enough to allow the rapid acquisition of a particular skill. Environment (“nurture”): The sum of all external conditions affecting development, including especially the effects of learning. Congenital problems: Problems caused by defects in the genes or by inherited characteristics. Teratogen:Anything capable of altering fetal development in non inheritable ways that cause birth defects. Sensitive period: During development, a period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time during which certain events must take place for normal development to occur. Deprivation: in development, the loss or withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition comfort, love, and so forth a condition of lacking. Enrichment: In development, deliberately making an environment more stimulating, nutritional, comforting, loving and so forth. Reaction range: the limits environment places on the effects of heredity. Temperament: The physical core of personality, including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood and so forth. Developmental level:An individual's current state oh physical, emotional, and intellectual development. Social smile: Smiling elicited by social stimuli, such as seeing a parent's face. Social development: The development of self-awareness, attachment to parents or caregivers, and relationships with other children and adults. Emotional attachment:An especially close emotional bond that infants form with their parents, caregivers, or others. Surrogate mother:Asubstitute mother (often an inanimate dummy in animal research). Contact comfort:Apleasant and reassuring feeling human and animal infants get from touching or clinging onto usually their mothers. Separation anxiety: distress displayed by infants when they are separated from their parents or principal caregivers. Secure attachment: a stable position ad positive emotional bond. Insecure-avoidant attachment:An anxious emotional bond marked by a tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver. Insecure-ambivalant attachment:An anxious emotional bond marked by both desire to be with a parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited. Affectional needs: emotional needs for love and affection. Parental styles: Identifiable patterns of parental care taking and interaction with children. Authoritarian parents: Parents who enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority. Overly permissive parents: Parents who give little guidance, allow too much freedom or don’t require the child to take responsibility. Authoritative parents: parents who supply firm and consistent guidance along with love and affection. Maternal parents: The aggregate of all psychological effects mothers have on their children. Paternal influences: The aggregate of all psychological effects fathers have on their children. Biological predisposition: The presumed hereditary readiness of humans to learn certain skills, such as how to use language, or a readiness to behave in particular ways. Signal: in early language development, any behavior, such as touching, vocalizing, gazing, or smiling, that allows nonverbal interaction and turn-taking between parent and child. Motherese (or parentese):A pattern of speech used when talking to infants, marked by a higher-pitched voice; short, simple sentences; repetition slower speech; and exaggerated voice inflections. Assimilation: In Piaget’s theory, the application of existing mental patterns to fit new demands (that is, mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information or experiences). Sensoimotor stage: Stage of intellectual development during which sensory input and motor responses become coordi
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