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ASIA 2170 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Zheng He, Guzheng, Samudera Pasai Sultanate

by

Department
Asian Studies
Course Code
ASIA 2170
Professor
L.Yu
Study Guide
Midterm

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ASIA 1170 Midterm
Major Differences between the Chinese and the Europeans in Pre-Modern Times
Polity
Europeans: Municipal Government
China
Economy
Europeans: Nation economy
dominated by Guilds
-merchant guilds regulated the world of trade
-craft guilds regulated the urban industries
Chinese: dynamic, commercializing economy
Legal System
Religious Belief
Chinese: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism
Europeans: Christianity
The Three Zones in the Chinese World Order
Sinic Zone
-Geographically and culturally close to China
-Korea and Vietnam
Inner Asian Zone
-on the fringe (def. natural border) of Chinese border constantly pressed against China
-the nomadic/semi-nomadic (def. people that travel from place to place) people of inner Asia
Outer Zone
-outer barbarians in distant areas far from China
-Japan, Southeast Asian countries, some of the European tribute-nations
The Tribute System
-network of trade and foreign relations between China and China‟s
-premised (def. a statement) on the belief that China was the cultural center of the universe
-all non-Chinese were considered uncivilized “barbarians” (def. a member that does belong
to one of the greatest civilizations )
-the Chinese ruler, “the son of Heaven” was considered the ruler of all humankind
-all other barbarian rulers were more local chieftains (def. leader of a tribe) owing
allegiance (def. loyalty or commitment of a subordinate(def. lower) to a group/individual) to Beijing
-^therefore, there could not be any Western-style diplomatic (def. of or concerning of an activity)
relations
-Countries wanting to trade with China had to send tribute missions that legitimized
The Northern and Southern Routes connecting China and the West in Ancient Times
The Silk Road
Ancient European names for China
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Qin
Chin
Sin
Cathay
Ancient Chinese names for Roman Empire
Li-jien
Marco Polo’s description of China
-described Beijing as “like a chessboard”
Zheng He Voyages
-Involved more than 1000 ships
First Voyage (autumn 1405):
-sailed southward across the South China Sea to Majapahit in Java and three independent
townships on the north coast of Sumatra (Semudera, Deli and Atjeh)
- stopped at Qui Nhon in Vietnam before going on to Ceylon
-encountered a pirate ship on his way home and defeated them & brought the chief and others
back to the imperial court at Nanjing for execution
Second Voyage (early 1407-1409):
-total of 48 ships
-sailed to Champa in India then to Temasek (later named as Singapore) and then to Malacca
further up the Malay Peninsula
-traded some of his goods (up at the Malay Peninsula) for ebony, aloes and native trees (aka
Dammar) that was used as a caulking material and lighting fluid
-ships returned by way of Siam (Thailand) and Java
Third Voyage ( 1409-1411):
-went to most of the same places as second voyage
-upon Zheng He‟s return, tribute-bearing ambassadors arrived at the Ming court from the
countries that the Chinese ships had visited
-after they presented their tribute, the foreign kings and envoys received personal
gifts from the emperor
-the delegations (def. a person sent to represent others) were allowed to set up markets
To sell to the public for three to five days
-some particulary favored countries ( ex. Korea) were granted unlimited trading time
-some historians say that China‟s glass production industry commenced following this
third voyage because zheng he returned to China
Fourth Voyage (1413-1415):
- reached the Persian Gulf and the coast of Arabia
-stopped at Maldives, Hormux, the Hadramwt coast of Arabia and Aden
-during a bad storm, the prayers of a moslem translator they brought from China were said
To have calmed the winds and saved the ships
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