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ASIA 1170 Midterm notes

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Langara College
Asian Studies
ASIA 2170

ASIA 1170 Midterm Major Differences between the Chinese and the Europeans in Pre-Modern Times Polity Europeans: Municipal Government China Economy Europeans: Nation economy dominated by Guilds -merchant guilds regulated the world of trade -craft guilds regulated the urban industries Chinese: dynamic, commercializing economy Legal System Religious Belief Chinese: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Europeans: Christianity The Three Zones in the Chinese World Order Sinic Zone -Geographically and culturally close to China -Korea and Vietnam Inner Asian Zone def. -on the fringe ( natural border) of Chinese border constantly pressed against China def. -the nomadic/semi-nomadic ( people that travel from place to place) people of inner Asia Outer Zone -outer barbarians in distant areas far from China -Japan, Southeast Asian countries, some of the European tribute-nations The Tribute System -network of trade and foreign relations between China and China‟s def. -premised ( a statement) on the belief that China was the cultural center of the universe def. -all non-Chinese were considered uncivilized “barbarians” ( a member that does belong to one of the greatest civilizations ) -the Chinese ruler, “the son of Heaven” was considered the ruler of all humankind -all other barbarian rulers were more local chieftains ( defleader of a tribe) owing def. def. allegiance ( loyalty or commitment of a subordinate( lower) to a group/individual) to Beijing def. -^therefore, there could not be any Western-style diplomatic ( of or concerning of an activity) relations -Countries wanting to trade with China had to send tribute missions that legitimized The Northern and Southern Routes connecting China and the West in Ancient Times The Silk Road Ancient European names for China Qin Chin Sin Cathay Ancient Chinese names for Roman Empire Li-jien Marco Polo’s description of China -described Beijing as “like a chessboard” Zheng He Voyages -Involved more than 1000 ships First Voyage (autumn 1405): -sailed southward across the South China Sea to Majapahit in Java and three independent townships on the north coast of Sumatra (Semudera, Deli and Atjeh) - stopped at Qui Nhon in Vietnam before going on to Ceylon -encountered a pirate ship on his way home and defeated them & brought the chief and others back to the imperial court at Nanjing for execution Second Voyage (early 1407-1409): -total of 48 ships -sailed to Champa in India then to Temasek (later named as Singapore) and then to Malacca further up the Malay Peninsula -traded some of his goods (up at the Malay Peninsula) for ebony, aloes and native trees (aka Dammar) that was used as a caulking material and lighting fluid -ships returned by way of Siam (Thailand) and Java Third Voyage ( 1409-1411): -went to most of the same places as second voyage -upon Zheng He‟s return, tribute-bearing ambassadors arrived at the Ming court from the countries that the Chinese ships had visited -after they presented their tribute, the foreign kings and envoys received personal gifts from the emperor -the delegations (defa person sent to represent others) were allowed to set up markets To sell to the public for three to five days -some particulary favored countries ( ex. Korea) were granted unlimited trading time -some historians say that China‟s glass production industry commenced following this third voyage because zheng he returned to China Fourth Voyage (1413-1415): - reached the Persian Gulf and the coast of Arabia -stopped at Maldives, Hormux, the Hadramwt coast of Arabia and Aden -during a bad storm, the prayers of a moslem translator they brought from China were said To have calmed the winds and saved the ships Fifth (1417-1419) and Sixth (1421-1425) Expeditions: -visited the shores of East Africa at such places as Mogadishu, Brava, Juba, Malindi, Mombassa, Zanzibar and Kilwa -before the ships returned to China after the sixth voyage, emperor yongle died -the idea of a seventh voyage now came under attack from those who regarded such ventures As wasteful and unnecessary Seventh Voyage (1433-1435): -the new emperor, Gaozhi eventually gave the go-ahead for the seventh voyage -visited a score of states as far away as eastern Africa -Zheng He died during this voyage and was brought back to Nanjing to be buried The difference between Zheng He Voyages and the Western voyages to East Asia in the late th th 15 and 18 centuries The major goods China sold to Europe before the nineteenth century Silk -strongest of all nat
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