CHMI-2227EL Study Guide - Winter 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Protein, Dna, Carboxylic Acid


Department
Chemistry & Biochemistry / Chimie et biochimie
Course Code
CHMI-2227EL
Professor
Nasserula
Study Guide
Midterm

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CHMI-2227EL
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Biochemistry - Day 1 2018.01.12
INTRO NOT ON EXAM
Organelles
-Nucleus: location of main genome, site of most DNA and RNA synthesis
-Mitochondrion: site of energy yielding oxidation reactions, has its own DNA
-Chloroplast: site of photosynthesis in green plants and algae, has its own DNA
-Endoplasmic reticulum: continuous membrane throughout cell, site of protein
synthesis
-Golgi apparatus: involved in secretion of proteins
-Lysosomes: membrane bound sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes
-Peroxisome: sacs containing enzymes involved in metabolism of hydrogen peroxide
The Five Kingdoms
-Monera: only prokaryotic organisms, like bacteria and cyanobacteria
-Protista: unicellular organisms like yeast
-Fungi: includes holds and mushrooms
-Plantae
-Animals
ON EXAM
Amino Acids and Peptides
-Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
-Comes from the greek word proteios, meaning primary
-All proteins are composed of 20 amino acids
-AA = amino acids
-AA are composed of an amino group (NH2), carboxyl
group (COOH) a hydrogen atom and a distinctive
side chain group (R), all attached to a carbon atoms
called the alpha carbon from the organic chemistry
nomenclature
-All AA are called alpha-amino acids because they have a
primary amino group, and a carbonyl group
-Only proline, a cyclic amino acid, is the exception, it
is called an imino acid but still commonly referred
to as an alpha-amino acid
-Can be called pro, or P as well
-When placed in neutral solution, pH 7, the amino
group exists as NH3+ and the carboxyl group as
COO-, here it is depolarized and called a zwitterion
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(german for hybrid ion)
-Dipolar ion (or zwitterion) form of an amino acid
-The additional carbons in an R group are called, beta
(β), gamma (γ) , delta (δ), and epsilon (ε) and so forth
proceeding out from the alpha (α) carbon
Classification of Amino Acids
-The nature of the side chains of amino acids dictates the role of that an amino acid
plays in a protein
-It is therefore useful to classify the amino acids according to the properties of their
side chains (R)
-You should know names, structures, 3-letter code and 1-letter code for each
amino acids
-1) Glycine (Gly, G)
-The simplest AA
-It only has one hydrogen atom as its side chain
-2) Alanine (Ala, A)
-It has a methyl group as its side chain
-3) Valine (Val, V)
-It has 3 carbon branched side chain
-Side chain is like a V
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