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POLI-1007EL Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Single European Act, Maastricht Treaty, Amsterdam Treaty

Political Science / Science politique
Course Code
Michael Johns
Study Guide

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Merger Treaty (1965)
Merged the High Authority of ECSC, commission of Euratom and EEC into one
Replaced by Amsterdam
Treaty amending certain budgetary (1970) and financial (1975) provisions of the Treaties
Established Courts of Auditors to examine accounts of all revenues and expenditures
Act concerning the election of the assembly by direct universal suffrage (1976)
Legal base for direct elections of EP
MS elected directly for the first time in 79
Single European Act (1986)
Came into force in mid-87 because of ratification problems in Ireland
Strengthened treaty base for policy activity (completion if IMU by Dec 92)
Strengthened the community’s institutional system
o Increased power to EP (assent procedure)
o Increased use of QMV in Council of Ministers
Legal recognition of meetings between heads of state and governments (IGC)
Established of a new Court of First Instance (ECJ had too much workload)
Legal recognition of the European Council
Maastricht Treaty (1992)
Internal factors: associated with stimulus to further integration provided for the relaunch in mid
80s (SEM)
o Need for EMU and social dimension after SEM
o Democratic deficit
o Increasing of cross borders
External factors:
o Collapse of USSR and Communism
o End of Cold War and unification of Germany
o Balkan and Iraqi War
Involved two IGC, one on political and one on economic and monetary union
Signed by foreign and finance ministers of 12 countries
Ratification problems in UK, Germany and Denmark came into action in Nov93

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At the heart of the treaty: creation of a new organ (EU), to be based on three pillars, based on a set
of guiding principles
Pillar One: the European Communities
o Principle of subsidiarity formally incorporated
o Union citizenship established
o EEC, renamed European Community, became part of the European Communities, that
became part of the EU
Pillar Two: Common Foreign and Security Policy, pursued through
o Systematic cooperation between MS on matters of general interest; the Council should
define common position on the basis of unanimity
o The Council could decide which matter to be subject of joint action, if so could determine
that implementation decisions should be taken by QMV
o WEU shall elaborate and implement decisions and actions of the Union which had defense
implications; the practical arrangements should be adopted by the Council in agreements
with the WEU
Pillar Three: Cooperation in the Spheres of Justice and Home Affairs
o MS to regard as matters of common interest: asylum and immigration policy, judicial and
police cooperation, crossing by persons of the external borders of the MS
o Possibility of QMV on certain aspect of policy implementationSmall element of
Institutional changes:
o Pillars to be held together by the European Council (becoming the ultimate decision-
making body regarding CFSP and EMU)
o Greater use of QMV in the Council of Ministers
o Increased powers and influence in several areas, veto power to EP
o Establishment of ECB and CoR
o ECJ given power to impose fines on MS
o Commision appointed by common accord of national fovernments and subject to a vote of
approval by EP
Policy changes:
o Schedule for establishing EMU with single currency
Amsterdam Treaty (1997)
To be held according to the TEU in order to examine the operation of MT
Prepared by a Reflection group in 95 establishing three main areas
o Making Europe more relevant to its citizens
o Enabling the EU to work better and prepare for enlargement
o Giving the EU greater capacity for external action
UK obstacle removed with the defeat of the Conservatives(97) Blair’s constructive engagement
Came into force in May 99
Not great driving force revising rather than pioneering treaty

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Institutional changes:
o Co-decision procedure extended to 23 new areas; cooperation procedure abandoned
o Increased provisions for the use of QMV in the Council
o EP’s de facto right to approve the European Council’s nominee for the Commission
President was given treaty status; nominations for commissioners must be made by
common accord with the President-designate
Policy changes:
o Schengen acquis integrated in the EU framework with opt-outs for UK and Ireland
(Denmark exempted as a matter of EU but conducted on an intergovernmental basis)
o New device of constructive abstention
o A number of JHA policy areas transferred to the first pillar
External relations:
o QMV established as the norm
o New post of CFSP
o Certain security issues now within the remit of EU (humanitarian and rescue tasks,
peacekeeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management)
Nice Treaty (2001):
Preparing for imminent enlargement
Remit to the Amsterdam leftover (composition of the Commission, further extension of QMV to
new policy areas, weighting of votes among the members of the Council) + strengthening and
simplification of the closer cooperation procedure
Focused on institutional issues
Narrow focus ratification pretty straightforward (only Ireland needed two referendums)
Institutional changes:
o Commission: one commissioner per MS; President’s powers strengthened; appointment in
the European Council and Council of Ministers decided by QMV
o Council of Ministers: QMV decisions to be approved by a majority of states and
population; small states continued to be over-represented
o EP: ceiling set at 732 (Amsterdam: 700)
o ECJ and CFI: improvement in functioning, clarification of responsibilities
Decision-making procedures: changes made to the enhanced cooperation procedure
o Number of MS required set at eight
o In first and third pillar possibility of a single state vetoing removed
Constitutional Treaty (2004)
Supposed to resolve three challenges:
o Bring citizens closer to the EU
o How to organize politics in an enlarged Union
o How to develop the Union into a stabilizing factor in a multipolar world
Would have replaced all existing treaties with a single onemost of its content is from those
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