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[PSYC-1105EL] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 50 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology / Psychologie
Course Code
PSYC-1105EL
Professor
Levin Elizabeth
Study Guide
Final

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Laurentian
PSYC-1105EL
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Chapter 9 Thinking and Language
Thinking
Concepts
- Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
communicating.
- Forming Concepts; a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
-Coept hai > as hai, diig hai, et.
- Prototypes: A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype
provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories.
- The first thing you think of when someone gives you a general topic.
- Our cognitive ability allows us to form concepts of things; where prototyping is the best example we
can give for certain things.
Problem Solving: Strategies and Obstacles
- People sometimes use trial and error to solve problems, some use algorithms:
- Algorithm: A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular
problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics.
- Heuristic: A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve
problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
- When the problem suddenly come together off of insight.
- Isight: A sudde ealizatio of a poles solutio; otasts with strategy-based solutions.
- Insight is the eureka moment people get when they find closure in a certain concept.
- Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to
ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
- Waso : Odia people eade fats, eoe iosistet, o ssteatiall defed theseles
agaist the theat of e ifoatio eleat to the issue.
- Fixation disallows us to represent a problem in a different perspective.
- Mental Set: A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been
successful in the past.
- Perceptual sets predisposes what we perceive
Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgements
- We tend to follow our intuition
- An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious
reasoning.
The Availability Heuristic
- Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory if instances come readily to
the mind, we presume such events are common.
- We think that things are more likely to occur when we become aware of it, when it really it is occurring
at the same frequency as before.
Overconfidence
- The tendency to be more confident than correct to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and
judgements.
- IE.: Students procrastinating thinking they can take a shorter time to finish assignments.
Belief Perseverance
- Cligig to oes iitial onceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
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- In order to combat belief perseverance we must consider the opposite as to be objective and
uiased.
The Effects of Framing
- Framing: The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and
judgements.
- Especially powerful when people present the negative aspect of a comparison.
- Those who understand the power of framing can use it to nudge our decisions.
The Perils and Powers of Intuition
- Irrational fears, cloudy judgements, illogical reasoning feed gut fears and prejudices.
- Powers of Intuition:
- Ituitio is aalsis foze to hait; Thikig uikl
- Intuition is usually adaptive, enabling quick reactions; our fast and frugal heuristics let us
intuitively assume.
- Intuition is huge; letting a problem incubate can cause us to be indecisive. If we gather all the
information and let our intuition decide for us, we are able to better decide the right choice.
Thinking Creatively
- Creativity: The ability to produce new and valuable ideas.
- Creativity is supported by a certain level of aptitude.
- Intelligence tests typically demand a single answer; congruent thinking
- Narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.
- Creative tests require divergent thinking
- Expanding the number of possible problem solutions; creative thinking that diverges in
different directions.
- “teeg , eatiit has fie opoets
1. Imaginative thinking skills; ability to see things in novel ways, to recognize patterns, and to
make connections.
2. A venturesome personality; seeking new perspectives and experiences, tolerates ambiguity
and risk, and perseveres in overcoming obstacles.
3. Intrinsic motivation; being driven more by interest, satisfaction, and challenge than by
external pressures.
4. A creative environment, sparks supports, and refines creative ideas.
- To boost creative process
- Develop your expertise; follow your passions and become an expert at something
- Allow time for incubation; sleeping on it will allow for you brain to create new connections.
- Set aside time for the mind to roam freely; take time away from attention-absorbing
distractions.
- Experience other cultures and ways of thinking.
Do Other Species Share Our Cognitive Skills?
Using Concepts and Numbers
- Pigeons are even able to sort items into categories.
Displaying Insight
- Kohle , shoed that a chimp named Sultan figured out a way to get a fruit a long ways away from
his cage using a short and long stick that was given to him; showed insight when he got excited that he
figured out how he could grab the fruit.
Using Tolls and Transmitting Culture
- Chimps learn how to use tools to feed and teach other parts of their main crew dem.
- Chimps are fuckin smart af.
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