ANTH-110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mental Disorder, Learning Disability, Sat

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Module 3 Review Questions
Thinking Critically about Research on Sex and Gender
NOTE: These review questions are not graded but rather are designed to help you pull out the pertinent
information in each reading and to reinforce your learning.
Review Questions: Chapter 2
Please read the assigned reading in your textbook and complete the review questions.
In Caplan, P. J., & Caplan, J. B. (2009). Thinking critically about research on sex and gender (3rd
ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education.
Chapter 2: “A brief historical perspective on sex-difference research,” (pp. 12–
22).
§
1.
a) As outlined in Caplan and Caplan (2009), what are the two dangerous assumptions
regarding sex difference research?
Two dangerous assumptions regarding sex difference research are: that women are
intellectually inferior, and that women could devote their energies exclusively to bearing
and raising children.
Why do we study the history of sex difference research?
Until recently, most research has been done with the aim of trying to document sex
differences. Current research tries to find similarities using historical background to learn
from the mistakes made by the researchers in the past, and understands people’s
attitudes today
2.
a) During the 19th century in Europe, what was the status quo?
The status quo was that males were intellectually more capable than women.
b) How did Judeo-Christian thought play into the view on gender?
In the bible Eve—who symbolizes women in general—is described as having introduced
evil into the world, which is regarded as evidence of women’s inferiority or even
dangerousness.
3. What was the assumption behind the investigation of why women are intellectually inferior to
men?
The assumption behind the investigation of why women are intellectually inferior to
women was that women’s brains were smaller than men’s. Later, scientists speculated
there was a difference in the size of one part of the brain.
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4.
a) What was George Romanes’ (1887) idea behind the lesser intelligence of women?
George Romanes claimed that because women have smaller heads, they must have
smaller brains, making them less intelligent.
b) What was Mobius’ (1901) theory regarding women’s lesser intelligence?
Mobius claimed that women’s lesser intelligences was actually necessary for the survival
of the human species, since women—free from intellectual interests—could devote their
energies exclusively to bearing and raising children.
c) When women excelled at reading comprehension, the ability to read was coupled with what
other ability?
The ability to read is coupled with the ability to lie, and women are better liars than men.
5. What was the Social Darwinists’ interpretation of women’s lesser intelligence?
It was argued that sex difference was necessary for the survival of the species, so that
women’s energy could go into bearing and raising children, whereas men do not.
Therefore, men can develop other abilities, like intelligence and perseverance, while
women must concentrate on nurturing and protecting. Moreover, morphological
infantilism is the idea that women, being smaller than men, are physically more like
infants and children than men.
6.
a) What is sociobiology also referred to as?
Sociobiology is referred as the study of biological, and especially genetic and
evolutionary, basis of social behaviour in animals and humans. It is also defined as an
androcentric science, which persistently depicts males as the norm while defining
females in relation to them, naming females passive and inferior.
b) What assumption, similar to Social Darwinism, does sociobiology have in regards to human
behaviour patterns?
The assumption that one mother raising her children alone except for whatever help their
father might provide, showing instead how frequently mothers receive abundant help
from other males and also from women.
7. David Buss argues that the following patterns “appear to be universal features of our
evolved selves” and “govern the relations between the sexes” (p. 211):
1.men’s wish for casual sex with women
2.men’s treatment of women’s bodies as men’s property
3.men’s dealing with their sexual jealousy by beating or killing the women about
whom they are jealous
4.women’s greediness for money
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Review Questions: Chapter 3
Please read the assigned reading in your textbook and complete the review questions.
In Caplan, P. J., & Caplan, J. B. (2009). Thinking critically about research on sex and gender (3rd
ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education.
Chapter 3: “Using the scientific method to study sex and gender,” (pp. 23–35).
1.
a) Briefly explain the scientific method.
Scientific method is defined as research method involving the definition of a problem and
the drafting and empirical testing of the hypotheses by gathering data.
b) What does it mean to be objective?
It is an objective way to find the truth—that it is not affected by scientists’ beliefs,
feelings, or biases.
c) What type of result is the scientific method thought to produce?
It is said to produce results that are reliable.
d) If the results of a study can be replicated or reproduced, what may be inferred?
If a scientific experiment is conducted well, then the results can be replicated or
reproduced in another study, and this suggests that such results are true. If the results
are not reproducible, then how can we tell which set of results is closer to the truth?
e) Why is it important to provide careful documentation of every step of the procedure?
A key feature of the scientific method is the careful documentation of every step of the
procedure, so that anyone can reproduce the experiments to test the original results.
2.
a) What is the first step in any scientific study?
The first step in any scientific study is to decide what you want to find out.
b) Why is it important to define what you are looking for?
It is important to define what you are looking for because other researchers might define
terms differently represented in the study question.
c) What are the two main ideas involved in designing the research?
(1) The method must relate back to the research questions or hypotheses and/or
theories on which the study is based.
(2) Certain methodological errors can skew the results. Some of these can appear in any
methods, while others are inherently only on certain kinds of methods.
d) Outline the seven different methodological errors that may occur and skew results.
(1) Experimental bias involves the intrusion of the researcher’s beliefs or hopes into the
actual study.
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