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Final

PSYC-223 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ocular Dominance Column, Retina, Environmental Factor


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC-223
Professor
Tara Vongpaisal
Study Guide
Final

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Definitions to know:
SSSM: the standard social science model is a summary of current thoughts about human
nature, including the assumptions that underlie most undergraduate curriculum and popular
press reports on human issues.
Heritability statistic: the estimate of the proportion of the measured variance in a trait among
individuals in a given population that is attributable to genetic differences among those
individuals
family studies: studies designed to estimate the heritability of a trait in which the concordance of
a trait between people is compared to their genetic relatedness. Researchers then estimate how
much of the variance of the trait in the population is accounted for by genetic relatedness.
Adoption studies: heritability studies in which the correlation of a trait between adopted children
and their adoptive parents is compared to the correlation of the trait between biologically related
parents, children, and siblings living in different households
Twin studies: a special type of family study in heritability. Concordance of a trait among
monozygotic twins is compared to the concordance of the trait among dizygotic twins, allowing
for the estimate of genetic relatedness contributing to the variance of the trait in the population
Facultative adaptation: an adaptation that is designed to respond to specific cues in the
environment, thus preparing organisms for the varying conditions that were possible in the EEA
Experience-expectant learning mechanism: a learning mechanism that is designed to respond
to species-typical environmental input, usually during a critical period, in order for normal brain
development to result
Critical period: the time period in development during which a specific kind of learning can take
place if the necessary stimuli are present
Sensitive period: the time period in development during which a specific kind of learning takes
place most easily
experience-dependent learning mechanism: a learning mechanism that responds to individual,
specific information
Norm of reaction: the relationships between a specific environmental factor and a measurable
phenotypic expression
Prepared learning: learning that is easier to induce than a random paired association would be
because of its importance in our evolutionary history
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