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BIOL 111 Study Guide - Final Guide: Endodermis, Vascular Bundle, Leaf

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray
Study Guide

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LAB 4: Nonseed Plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Non-seed Plants: no vascular tissue
Alteration of Generations
Sperm that swims to the egg
Liverworts: presence of gemmae (special structures in vegetative reproduction)
- Allows plants to persist in dry habitats
Male and Female Moss Gameotophytes:
Antheridium produces sperm while the archegonia produces the egg
Sporophyte grows attached to female gamtophyte
Calyptra: hairy cap on sporophyte (haploid)
Peristome: a ring of teeth like projections at the mouth of the capsule
The Ferns:
True roots, stems, leaves (sporophyte generation)
Fertilization is dependent on water
Fern Sporophyte:
Fronds (leaves)
Horizontal stem (rhizome)
Pinnae venation of leaves (outlines of vascular bundles)
Sori: brownish spots on the underside of the leaf (found at the apex)
Covered with indusium; umbrella like outgrowth of epidermis

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LAB 4: Nonseed Plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
The Female Cone: one spore makes female, the other makes male
Female Fern Gametophyte:
Following germination of the spores, a green filamentous structure is formed, that
soon grows further ina gametophyte called a prothallus.
Rhizoids: absorbing structures
Apical notch: cell division occurs
Antheridia: among rhizoids
Archegonia: among apical notch
Fern Reproduction:
Multiflaggellated sperm are released from the antheridium and sperm is
chemically attracted to the archegonium
One sperm unites with one egg; producing a young fern plant called a
Seed Plants
No need for external water during fertilization, as the sperm is blown by
wind as pollen to the egg
Ovules and seeds are exposed and not protected within additional tissues
(naked seed)
Divided into four phyla: Cycadophyta (palm-like trees), Ginkgophya (only
one species), Coniferophyta (cone bearing trees), Gnetophyta (peculiar
Egg cell
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