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BIOL 111 Study Guide - Final Guide: Thermoregulation, Ectotherm, Gastrointestinal Tract

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray
Study Guide

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Metabolic Physiology of an Aquatic Invertebrate
Cladocerans are a group of aquatic crustaceans called “water fleas” due
to their jerky swimming motiong
Members of the zooplankton community
The small invertebrates are an important component of the food web. Not
only are they food for other invertebrates such as hydra and vetebrates
such as fish, but they feed on phytoplankton and bacteria suspended in
the water column
Phylum Arthropoda Class Crustraceans Daphnia Magna
Compound eye: single compound eye moved by muscles
Carapace: transparent exoskeleton, dorsally hinged, molted
Antennae: large, biramous (branch), main swimming structures,
used like oars
Posterior spine: quite long, reduces chance of being eating by
small predators, length can change throughout seasons (after
molts) depending on level of predation threats
Digestive tract: C-shaped gut; color of tract is good indicator of
food type being consumed
Heart: transparent pumping organ located dorsal to the digestive
Thoracic legs: 5 pairs located under the opening of the carapace,
used for generating water currents and filter feeding; food trapped
on filtering setae (hairs) on legs
Post-abdominal claw: used to remove debris from under the
Brood Pouch: dorsal sac at the end of the oviduct (contains 2-20
eggs which develop by parthenogenesis) eggs hatch inside brood
pouch then emerge from female
o Parthenogenisis: asexual reproduction development of
egg without fertilization by sperm
During the summer (favorable), only females are
Prior to death, females produce a thick protective
layer around their brood chamber containing a couple
fertilized eggs. This sac is molted and remains in the
sediment until the spring. The eggs then hatch.
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