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BIOL 111 Study Guide - Final Guide: Coelom, Gallbladder, Hindbrain

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray
Study Guide

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Yellow Perch
Stereotypic: behavior is almost always the same
Species specific: similar in members of the same species but differs
between different species
Body: divided into the head, the trunk and the tail (the gill openings mark
the border between the head and the trunk, while the anal/urogenital
openings mark the bored between the tail and the trunk)
Body Surface: covered with hard scales that are arranged to assist in
stream lining
Ctenoid Scale: possess growth rings annuli, which are used to age the
fish, the projecting edge has small, comb-like teeth called ctenii, the
entire scale is covered in epithelium
External nares: nostrils, open into the olfactory pits (organs of smell), not
connected to the respiratory system water enters through the anterior
nasal opening and leaves through the posterior opening
Opercula: gill covers, protection for the respiratory structure and aid in
pumping water over the gills
Gills: contain four gill arches each with two rows of gill filaments
Fins: membranous extensions of the epidermis supported by fin rays
1. Unpaired fins: used for stabilization, prevention from rolling over and
for forward propulsion (anterior dorsal fin, posterior dorsal fin, anal
fin, caudal fin)
2. Paired fins: used in braking, turning and prevention of rolling
(pectoral fins and pelvic fins
Lateral line: running along either side of the body is a row of scales,
each perforated by a small hole holes connect to a small water-filled
canal along each side of the fish (sensory organs called neuromasts are
found here) clusters of ciliated sensory receptors (hair cells) are
embedded in a gelatinous capsule called the cupula (extend into the
lateral line canal and bend with water disturbance
Lateral line system allows the fish to detect disturbances in the
water caused by distant objects or organisms, helps the fish locate
predators, prey and social partners (also important in schooling
Male: paired testes filled with sperm
1. A duct (vas deferens) lies inside each testis and join together to
form a genital sinus which opens to the exterior through a genital
pore between the urinary pore and the anus
Female: ovaries are filled with thousands of eggs/ova
2. Mature ova are discharged and pass down the oviduct to the
external environment through the urogenital pore
External fertilization
3. Eggs are released into the water
4. Fertilized by the male
5. Oviparious: egg layers
6. Parents provide no care, egg must rely on its own supply of yolk
for nourishment
Spleen: reservoir for blood and assists in the destruction of red blood
cells (mesentery: thin connective tissue that holds the internal organs
together in the body cavity)
Heart: two chambers atrium which receives blood from the sinus
venosus and the ventricle which pumps blood out via the bulbus
1. Sinus venosus receives blood returning from the body via the
right and left common cardinal veins
2. The blood then flows to the atrium and then to the ventricle
3. The atrio-ventricular valve prevents back flow
4. The ventral aorta receives blood from the bulbus arteriosus
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