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Midterm

BIOL 112 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Exergonic Process, Anabolism, Molar Concentration


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 112
Professor
Joseph Dent
Study Guide
Midterm

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29lecturequesonsand10labquesons
Alloffirsthalfandfirst3ofgenecs
Labs1through6
Mulplechoice
Chemistry
Isotopes:
Isotopes,samechemicalproperes,14Cisrare,12C,theaverageis12Cor12.03
5TypesofBonds/Interacons:
Covalent,Hydrogen,Ionic,Hydrophilic,Hydrophobic,vanderWaals
Covalent:
Madeof2electrons
Areshared
Atomscanformbondsunltheiroutermostshellisfilled
Canbenonpolarorpolar
Ionic:
Composedofacaonandananion
Transferofelectrons
Hydrogen:
Waterispolar
Hydrogenbondsformbetweenwatermolecules
Hydrophobic:
Nonpolarmoleculesdonotdissolveinwater
Waterforcesnonpolarmoleculestogether,becausedoingsominimizestheirdisrupveeffectsonthehydrogen‐bondedwaternetwork
VanderWaals:
Nonpolarmoleculesarealsoaractedtoeachotherviarelavelyweakaraconscalledvanderwaalsforces(transientdipoles)
Hydrophilic:
Polarmoleculesandionsdissolvereadilyinwater
Molarity:
Amoleistheamountofasubstanceingramswhoseweightisequaltoitsmolecularweight
A1molarsoluonisonemoleofacompounddissolvedinwatertomakeoneliter
pH:
IsdefinedasthenegavelogarithmoftheH+concentraoninmoles/liter
WeakAcidsandbases/buffers:
Acidsrelease/donateH+ionsinsoluon
Ifthereaconiscomplete,itisastrongacid,suchasHCl
Thecarboxylgroupiscommoninbiologicalcompounds.Itfunconsasaweekacidbecauseitdissociatedparallyandreversibly
BasesacceptH+insoluon
NaOHionizescompletelytoNa+andOH‐.TheOH‐absorbsH+toformwater.Itisastrongbase
TheaminogroupisanimportantpartofmanybiologicalcompoundsitfunconsasaweakbasebyparallyandreversiblyaccepngH+
BuffersmaketheoverallsoluonresistanttopHchange,becausetheyreactwithbothaddedbasesandacids
Proteins
Macromolecules:
Largemolecules
Proteinsnucleicacidsandcarbohydratesaremacromoleculesthatcanformhugepolymers
Aremadethesamewayinalllivingthings,andarepresentinallorganisminroughlythesameproporons
Anadvantageofthisbiochemicalunityisthatorganismsacquireneededbio‐chemicalsbyeangotherorganisms
Condensaon/Hydrolysis:
Monomerin,waterout
Waterin,monomerout
AminoAcids:
Proteinsarepolymersofaminoacids
Rangeinsizefromafewaminoacidstothousandsofthem
Foldingiscrucialtothefunconofaproteinandisinfluencedlargelybythesequenceofaminoacids
Joinedbypepdebonds
Orientaonofpolymerizaon:
Aminoacidpairing
PrimaryStructure:
Numberingsystem
Pepdelinkage
Typesofaminoacids:
Non‐polar:Glucine,alanine,valine,leucine,isoleucine,methionine,phenlalanine,tryptopham,proline
MidtermReview
March10,2015 1:21PM

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Polar:serine,threonine,systeine,tryosine,asparagine,glutamine
Acidic:aspartate,glutamate
Basic:lysine,arginine,hisdine
SecondaryStructure:
Hydrogenbondsforminginbetweenpepdebonds
A‐helix
b‐pleatedsheet
TeraryStructure:
Sidechaininteraconsdetermineterarystructure
Diverse
Canbecomposedofa‐helices
b‐pleatedsheets
Disulfidebonds
QuaternaryStructure:
Shapeproducedbycombinaonsofpolypepdes
Denaturaon/renaturaon:
Denaturaoniswhenthedisulfidebondsandhydrogenbondsarebroken
Proteinturnoveroccursconstantlyincells
Chaperones:
Specializedproteinsthathelpkeepotherproteinsfrominteracnginappropriatelywithoneanother
Theydosobysequesteringsomenewlysynthesizedproteinstogivethemmetofold
NucleicAcids
Nucleode:
Phosphategroupisbondedto5'carbonofsugar
Phosphate:
ThephosphatesarenormallyjoinedtotheC5hydroxyloftheriboseordeoxyribosesugar
Sugar:
RiboseinRNA
DeoxyriboseinDNA
Bases:
Cytosine,UracilinRNA,ThymineinDNAarepyrimidines
GuanineandAdeninearepurinesandarelargerthanpyrimidines
Nitrogenousbases
Orientaonofpolymerizaon:
Base‐pairing
OrientaonofstrandsinDNAdoublehelix:
Purine‐pyrimidinepairs
Bondingofstrands:
HydrogenbondsformbetweenG‐CpairsandA‐Tpairs
RNAversusDNA:
DNAisasequenceofdeoxyribonucleodes,twoanparallelstrandstwistintoadoublehelix,stabilizedbyhydrogenbondingbetween
complementarybasesandhydrophobicinteracons
RNAisasequenceofribonucleodes,mostcommonarehairpins,formedwhenasinglestrandfoldbackonitselftoformadouble‐helixstem
andasinglestrandedloop,foldsthatformdisncvethree‐dimensionalshapesandassociaonsbetweenseveralRNAmolecules
SugarsandLipids
Carbohydratefunconandgeneralstructure:
Threemajorcategoriesofcarbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides,whichconsistoftwomonosaccharides
Polysaccharides,whicharecomposedofhundredstohundredsofthousandsofmonosaccharides
Isomers/opcalisomers:
Agroupisaachedtodifferentcarbonatoms
Inopcalisomersagroupisaachedindifferentwaystothesamecarbonatom.Opcalisomersaremirrorimagesofeachother
Opcalisomersoccurwheneveracarbonhasfourdifferentatomsorgroupsaachedtoit
Straightchain:
Norings,justalinearformofglucose
Alphaandbetaringformofsugarmonomers:
IthastheO‐Hgroupinadifferentplaceforbothofthem
Glyosidiclinkageinmaltoseandcellobiose:
Twoglucosemoleculescanformelevendifferentdisaccharides
SpecificenzymeformaonofBlinkage
Starch:
Moderatelybranched,amylopecninplantshighbranched,glycogeninanimals
Cellulose:
Alwaysunbranced
Lipids:
Insolubleinwater

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Energystorage
Cellmembranes
Captureoflightenergy
Hormonesandvitamins
Thermalinsulaon
Electricalinsulaonofnerves
Waterrepellency
Fayacidsvs.fats/oils:
Vitamins/energystorage
Saturated/unsaturatedfayacids:
Saturated‐>lowerpermeabilityoffluid
Unsaturated‐>higherpermeability
Phospholipids:
Havetwohydrophobicfayacidsandonehydrophilicheadgroupaachedtoglycerol
Membraneproperes:
Glycoprotein
Cholesterol:
Schemac
Space‐filling
Havebothpolarandnonpolarparts
Membranes
Membranestructure:
Phospholipidsandglycolipidsareasymmetricallydistributed
Someproteinsbindtospecificcytosolicphospholipids
Roleofphospholipids:
havetwohydrophobicfayacids(tails)andonehydrophilicheadgroupaachedtoglycerol
Cholesterol:
Moleculesthathelptokeepthemembranefluid
Self‐assembly:
Occursduetothermodynamic
Lateralmovement:
Areinconstantlateralmoon,butrarelyfliptotheothersideofthebilayer
Leafletasymmetry:
Phospholipidsintheplasmamembrane
Transmembraneproteins:
Spanstheenretytothebiologicalmembranetowhichitispermanentlyaached
Diffusion:
Thepassivemixingofsubstancesresulngintransportalongaconcentraongradient
Diffusionratesaredeterminedbydistance,temperature,sizeofmolecule,andsteepnessofconcentraongradient
Brownianmoon:
Randomwalkofindividualmoleculesduetothermalmoonsandcollisions
Osmosis:
Diffusionofwateracrossaselecvelypermeablemembrane
Membranepermeability:
Selecvelypermeabletoionsandorganicmoleculesandcontrolsthemovementofsubstancesinandoutofcells
Hypertonic:
Highersoluteconcentraonoutsidemembrane
Isotonic:
Soluteconcentraonsareequalonbothsidesofmembrane
Hypotonic:
Highersoluteconcentraoninsidemembrane
Facilitateddiffusion:
Passivetransport
Dependsontwotypesofmembraneproteins:channelproteinsandcarrierproteins.
Channelsvs.Carriers:
Carrierproteinbindsthetransportedsubstance
Potassiumchannelsonlyallowpotassiumionstopassthrough
Acvetransport:
Incontrasttodiffusion,acvetransportrequirestheexpenditureofenergy
Substancesaremovedacrossthemembraneagainsttheconcentraongradient
Primaryacvetransport:
Setsupaconcentraongradientthatallowstheothertransportprocesstooccur
Thesodiumpotassiumpump:
Unboundprotein‐>sodiumbinding‐>shapechange‐>release
Secondaryacvetransportusingtheenergyofaniongradient:
Useestablishedgradientstomovesubstances
Cells
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