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Midterm

Complete BIOL 200 Notes for Midterm.pdf


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 200
Professor
Thomas Bureau
Study Guide
Midterm

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1
BIOL 200 NOTES
NB: Figures refer to the textbook, Lodish et. al, 6th edition.
Lecture 2: Protein Structure and Function 1
Protein conformation and distinctive chemical properties of amino side chains determine its
FUNCTION.
CENTRAL DOGMA:
DNA mRNA protein
(mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
miRNA, snRNA…etc.)
We need DNA to make proteins, and proteins to make everything else.
PROTEIN FUNCTIONS:
1. Catalysis: Intra and extracellular reactions.
2. Structural rigidity
3. Transport: Regulate flow of materials across the membrane (ex. Hemoglobin)
4. Regulatory: Sensor/switches to control cell function
5. Signaling: Transmit external signals to cell interior
6. Motor: Motion
Shape is important!!
Hemoglobin can bind to oxygen
Immunoglobulin can bind to antigens
transcription
translation

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2
BIOPOLYMER: 2 MONOMERS TOGETHER
- Remove H from one, OH from other to form water. Monomers thus join together.
Nucleotides Nucleic acids
Monosaccharide polysaccharide
Amino acid protein
AMINO ACID

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3
Special Amino Acids:-
Glycine:
- Symmetric amino acid
Cysteine:
- Sulfhydryl group
Can make disulfide bonds good to stabilize the chain (e.g. cysteine residues keep DNA stuck to chromatin.
Proline:
- Side chain connected to amine group.
Causes kink in protein chains.
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