# BIOL 215 Study Guide - Final Guide: Biodiversity Hotspot, Northern Hemisphere, Transpiration

by OC13018

School

McGill UniversityDepartment

Biology (Sci)Course Code

BIOL 215Professor

Neil PriceStudy Guide

FinalThis

**preview**shows pages 1-3. to view the full**38 pages of the document.**BIOL215 Lecture 13 Notes

Population biology is the study of individuals from one species that live together in space and time (Book pg.

114)

Basic demography is something that focuses on a species; not of a community

Population is of a single species while community is formed of a few species interacting together in the same

place and same time. Ecosystem incorporates the abiotic functions of communities in the same time and same

place

Population dynamics studies the "behavior" of populations such as increases and decreases in population size.

Demography is the study of the age structure of population. It includes the study of death, birth, population

growth, and population decrease

When we're talking about demography, we must have a sense of the size of the population at a given time

(initial time). We want to estimate how the population will grow to predict the population in the future. Very

mathematical

Consider births and immigration as factors that increase/brings individuals to a population

Consider deaths and emigration as factors that decrease/take away individuals to a population

Demography is the understanding of the balance between birth and death taking into account immigration and

emigration

Ecology means "the knowledge in the house" in Greek

To measure populations: 1) census for humans, 2) quadrants for plants, 3) marked captures for birds, 4) marked

capture (with tranquilizer) for deers

See list of methods for measuring populations: pg. 120

Density of number of individuals per unit area is measure of population size.

Individuals of small size are abundant on a small spatial scale and bigger individuals are less abundant

The two most important tenants of demography are: death and birth

Life table help to understand population growth. Life table is a table that records survivorship and mortality in a

population

• Cohort table: follows all the individuals born at the same time from birth to death (very precise, but

complicated to do in nature because of long-lived species)

• Static table: snapshot of a population over a short time interval. All individuals are of different ages

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

See Table 8.3 to understand calculations for lx and qx

A plot of number of survivors (Y-axis) vs. Age (X-axis) is a survivorship curve. It is used to understand how

mortality changes with age in a population

Survivorship is proportion of population surviving to each age

Research in population ecology suggests that patterns of survivorship usually fall into three categories:

• Type I: High juvenile survivorship (or low juvenile mortality)

• Type II: Constant rates of survival

• Type III: Low juvenile survivorship (or high juvenile mortality)

Another method to represent the demography is by drawing age

structure

Age distribution consists of estimating the number of individuals of

different age in a population. It corresponds to the static life table.

Age distribution is less accurate then cohort table, but often much

easier to obtain

See Table 8.5 to see survivorship schedule (lx) and fertility schedule

(bx)

The fecundity schedule is the table of values of (bx).bx is the

average number of offspring produced by each female individual in

each age interval

Capacity for increase is calculated together by lx and bx, which

allows for estimating population growth

Net reproductive rate is the sum of survivorship and reproduction

for each age class:

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

The rate of increase of populations needs to take into account generation time

Generation time is calculated by this equation:

G= ∑ xlxbx where x is age between generations

R0

Mean length of a generation, G, is mean period elapse between the "birth" of parent and "birth of offspring

As generation time increases, population increase happens slower

Knowing the net reproductive rate and generation time, we can calculate the instantaneous rate of increase of a

population by the following equation:

In the simplest case, (i.e. annual species, G = 1), therefore the instantaneous rate of increase:

Net productive rate is calculated by:

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