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Midterm

notes for midterm1.pdf


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 203
Professor
William C.Galley
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chem%203%‐%Survey%of%Physical%Chemistry%
Table&of&Contents&
Course&outline .......................................................................................................................... 1%
Lecture&1..................................................................................................................................... 3%
Lecture&2..................................................................................................................................... 8%
Lecture&3...................................................................................................................................13%
Lecture&4...................................................................................................................................18%
Lecture&5...................................................................................................................................22%
Lecture&6...................................................................................................................................27%
Lecture&7...................................................................................................................................34%
Lecture&8...................................................................................................................................45%
Lecture&9:&Formation&and&Combustion&Reactions ......................................................45%
Enthalpy&of&formation................................................................................................................... 45%
Analogy ............................................................................................................................................................. 46%
Hydrolysis%of%ATP......................................................................................................................................... 47%
Hess’&Law........................................................................................................................................... 47%
Resonance&Stabilization............................................................................................................... 48%
Lecture&10:&TemperatureKDependence&of&ΔE&and&ΔHΔ&for&Phase&Changes ........50%
The&Vaporization&of&H2O.............................................................................................................. 50%
Over&Long&T°&Ranges ..................................................................................................................... 51%
The&Determination&of&Changes&in&State&Function&from&Heat&Measurements ............ 52%
Gas%Expansion................................................................................................................................................ 52%
Isothermal%Expansion ................................................................................................................................ 52%
Lecture&11:&Entropy ..............................................................................................................53%
%
Course&outline&
Introduction%to%bond%making%and%breaking%%
Bond%energies%%
Combustion%and%hydrolysis%reactions,%%
ATP%hydrolysis%
Molecular%Energies%%%
o Types%
Translational%%
Rotational%%%
Vibrational%%
Electrical%%

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

%
2%
o Temperature%dependence%of%average%molecular%energies%
o Thermal%and%bonding%energies%
o Quantization%
o Covalent%and%intermolecular%interactions%%
The%1st%Law%of%Thermodynamics%%
o Systems%
o Surroundings%
o State%functions%%
o Processes:%%
Reversible%%
Irreversible%
o Heat%&%work%
o Energy%&%enthalpy%changes%
o Cp%&%Cv%%
o Thermochemistry%%
o Isothermal%&%adiabatic%calorimetry%
o Hess’%Law%
o Temperature%&%heats%of%reactions%
o Molecular%energy%changes%in%reactions%
o Calculation%of%bond%enthalpy%&%energies%
Entropy%and%the%2nd%Law%%%
o Entropy%%
o Entropy%changes%
o Carnot%cycle%
o Temperature%&%entropy%
o Pressure%&%entropy%
o ΔS%for%phase%changes%
o Absolute%entropies%
o ΔS%for%reactions%
o ΔS%for%the%system,%surroundings%&%the%universe%
o Gibb’s%energy%changes%
o Maximum%work%
o Dependence%of%ΔG%on%partial%pressures%&%concentrations%
o Equilibrium%constants%&%ΔGo%
o T‐dependence%of%K%(Van’t%Hoff%plots)%
Biophysical%Applications%
o Bioenergetics%&%metabolism%
o Coupled%processes%
o Diffusion%&%active%transport%
o Hydrophobicity%
o Thermodynamics%of%protein%stability%
o Binding%plots%and%binding%constants%
o Multiple%equilibria%
Chemical%Kinetics%%
o Review:%%
Rates%&%orders%of%reactions%

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

%
3%
Rate%constants%
o Half‐lives%
o Pseudo%zero%&%1st%order%processes%
o Initial%rates%%
o Cot%analysis%
o Elementary%reactions%
o Reverse%
o Parallel%&%consecutive%reactions%
o Steady‐state%approximation%%%
o Reaction%mechanisms%
o Predicting%order%from%models%
o Enzyme‐catalyzed%reactions%
o T‐dependence%of%K%
o Arrhenius%&%Transition‐State%theories%
o Activation%energy%&%entropy%
o Catalysis%
Lecture&1&
How%&%why%do%living%organisms%interact%with%the%environment?%
o Accumulate%&%grow%
o Form%complex%ordered%structures%%
o Do%work%
o Run%fast%
o Sing%%
Example%
%
o Nitroglycerin%has%weak%bonds%
Bonds%made%%no%input%of%energy%
Bonds%broken%%input%of%energy%is%required%
Energy‐rich%phosphates%%
o Misleading%%
Not%some%special%kind%of%bond%that%releases%energy%when%
broken%
Energy%must%be%expended%to%break%a%bond%
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