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McGill University
Anatomy & Cell Biology
ANAT 182

ASTROBIOLOGY NOTESThe scientific definition of astrobiology is variously defined as the study of origin evolution distribution future and ultimate fate of life in the universe Scientists also consider earth and the life on earth to be a part of astrobiologyAstrobiology was first conceives as just being the consideration of life elsewhere in the universe not including earthBefore the term astrobiology NASA used the term exobiology to identify the existence of extra terrestrial life In 1997 president Clinton creates an Origins Initiative as a mission for NASA to try and organize missions to mars and Europa to try and discover extra terrestrial life Types of forcesoGravityoElectromagnetivity oStrong nuclear force The force that holds the atom togetheroWeak nuclear forceForce exerted during beta decay All of the essential forces were once the same force but differentiated because of temperatureoThey all should be the same force at extremely high temperaturesoCalled a super force when all are the same thing The creation of the universe big bang supposedly happened within minutes and ceased to change exponentially At the time of the big bang time space and matter everything really was in a unified state The fluctuation of time and space is increasing and then decreasing oThe two ends of space is matter and antimatter oThe ends of space is the big bang to an annihilation end of timeProtons and neutrons are composed of 3 quarks two different types and two of one type are in one and only of that type are in another this distinguishes the difference between neutrons and protonsoElectrons are slightly bigger than these quarks oNeutrons and protons are the biggest Each quark and lepton has a corresponding anti quark and anti lepton which are identical to them Red vs blue shiftoIf the object is moving away form you it is viewed as a red shiftoIf the object is moving towards you it is viewed as a blue shiftThis is because blue has the lowest wavelength The majority of the lighter elements such as hydrogen helium and the heavier isotopes of hydrogen deuterium tritiumwere created at the time of the big bang Stars are born in clusters Interstellar dust is formed around red supergiants and react with each other to create molecular clouds oInterstellar dust is composed of silicon carbon dioxide and iceThe bodies of the solar system were made up by the shockwave ejections of a supernova of the starThe inner planets are all solid because they are solid the density of them casue them to orbit more closely to the sun The asteroid beltoA collection of objects usually 2 to 3 km large what orbit together between mars and JupiteroTheorized to not have become one large planet because of the large gravity of JupiterThe Jovian planetsoAlso known as the gas and water giants What causes the expansion of the universeoThe interaction between matter dark matter dark energy oHorova gravity or quantum gravity based on principles in the string theory The moons influence on earth and the origin of lifeoThe moon controls the tides and regulates the tilt of the earth This causes the seasons to change as they do oThe moon used to orbit much closer to the earth causing much more dramatic tides to ebb and flow every few hours which could have given rise to the first DNA microorganisms oThe formation of the moon is theorized to be a result fo a massive impact of earth and another object which increased the size of earth and created the moon to form around earth oAnother theory is similar but that the earth and the moon were both crated at the same time by one giant collision Layers of the earth oAtmosphereoCrustoMantleoOuter coreMolten metal oInner coreSolid metal hotTwo hypothesis for the differentiation of the early earthoHomogenous accretion theoryoInhomogeneous accretion theory Themain types of rockoSedimentary rock
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