Surface Markings and Relationships.pdf

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McGill University
Anatomy & Cell Biology
ANAT 214
Louis Hermo

Key:▯ Main Structure▯ Additional information:▯ Component▯ * see muscles▯ Sub-Components▯ Sub-Sub-Components ¬ see nerves▯ SURFACE MARKINGS AND RELATIONSHIPS € see arteries▯ £ see veins Head Structure Surface Marking Medial Lateral Anterior Parotid Gland On top of lateral surface of masseter Parotid Duct Pierces buccinator at level of 2nd upper molar Internal Jugular Vein Begins at jugular foramen Common carotid artery Above: Posterior belly of digastic. Sternocleidomastoid Middle: Sternocleidomastoid. Below: Inferior belly of omohyoid and intermediate tendon Neck Structure Surface Marking Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Anterior Posterior Hyoid bone C3 Epiglottis and Glossus Thyrohyoid membrane Thyroid cartilage C4-C5 Thyrohyoid membrane Cricothyroid membrane Cricoid cartilage C6 Cricothyroid membrane Trachea Esophagus Apex of the lung 1-1.5 inches above the medial third of the clavicle Trachea C6 to T4 Cricoid cartilage Cardiac Notch C6-T2 : skin of neck Esophagus T2-T4 : major vessels of the heart Scalene Anterior * Scalene Tubercle Common carotid artery, internal Subclavian artery jugular vein, subclavian vein, phernic nerve, vagus nerve (carotid sheath) Common Carotid Bifrucation at C4-5 Trachea, internal jugular Lobe of thyroid gland Apex of lung (above) Artery € esophagus, (posteriolateral) and and scalene tubercle recurrent laryngeal vagus nerve. (below) and lobe of thyroid. (Carotid sheath) Thorax Structure Surface Marking Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Anterior Posterior Jugular Notch articulation of clavicle Manubrium Clavicle Sternal Angle T4 Manubrium body of sternum 2nd rib Sympathetic Trunk necks of ribs Bifurcation of Trachea T4, Sternal Angle Trachea 2 Primary bronchi left and right lung Horizontal Fissure 4th rib Upper Lobe of Right Lung Middle Lobe of Right Lung Cardiac notch 4th rib Upper Lobe of Left Lung Oblique Fissure (Left Lung) 6th rib to costal (cartilage) junction Upper Lobe of Left Lung Lower Lobe of Left Lung Oblique Fissure (Right Lung) 6th rib to costal (cartilage) junction Middle Lobe of Right Lung Lower Lobe of Right Lung Inferior border/visceral 6th rib cartilage at midclavicular pleura line, 8th rib at midaxillary line, 10th rib at paravertebral line Parietal Pleura 8th rib at midclavicular line Apex of the Heart 5th ICS 3.5 inches from the midline Arch of the Aorta € T4 Left brachiochephalic vein, Ligamentum Arteriosum, Oxygenated blood Right: Superior Manubrium of Bifrucation of right brachiocephalic artery, pulmonary trunk, left Vena Cava septum. trachea into left and left common cartiod and left recurrent laryngeal Left: Left vagus right bronchi. subclavian artery Thoracic Aorta T4 Right border of heart 3rd rib near sternum to 6th rib near sternum Inferior border of heart 6th rib near sternum to 5th ICS 3.5 inches from the midline (apex). Left border of heart Apex to the 2nd rib near the sternum Tricuspid valve sound 5th right ICS by the sternum Mitral valve sound 5th left ICS 3.5 inches from midline Pulmonary valve sound 2nd left ICS near the sternum Aortic Valve 2nd right ICS near sternum Thoracic Duct T1 to T5: left of esophagus Drains into left T5 to T12: right of esophagus brachiocephalic vein between left subclavian and left internal jugular vein. Abdomen Structure Surface Marking Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Anterior Posterior Diaphragm * L: 4th Intercoastal Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity central tendon attaches to costal attaches to back of right and left crura, R: 5th Rib cartilages 7-12 (costalxiphoid process medial and lateral margin) arcuate ligaments Left crus L1, L2 Right crus L1, L2, L3 Loops around esophagus Inferior Vena Cava £ T8, pierces central tendon Esophagus T10, pierces stomach diaphragm Vagus ¬ T10 pierces diaphragm Abdominal Aorta € T12, enters abdomen at median arcuate ligament Thoracic Duct T12, pierces diaphragm Stomach Diaphragm Anterior abdominal Diaphrgam, spleen, wall, left lobe of upper part of left liver. left costal kidney, pancreas, margin, diaphragm, and transverse left pleura and lung colon (most anterior of left side). Fundus Diaphragm Cardiac Orifice Body Cardiac Orifice Pyloric Antrum Pyloric Antrum Left: Body fo stomach Right: Pylrous Pylorus Pyloric Canal and Left: Pyloic Antrum Pyloric sphincter Right: Duodenum Cardiac Orifice Esophagus Stomach Pyloric Orifice Left: Pylorus Right: Duodenum Greater Curvature Left border of Cardiac Orifice Left of pylorus Fundus Left and right stomach gastroepiploic Lesser Curvature Cardiac Orifice right of pylorus Left and right gastric arteries Small intestine Duodenum 10 inches long head of pancreas 1st stage Head of pancreas Quadrate lobe of Common bile duct, liver, body of portal vein, and IVC gallbladder 2nd stage ampulla of vater and Ascending colon, right Fundus and body of Hilus of right kidney head of pancreas. colic flexure, and rightgallbladder, right and right urerter lobe of liver lobe of liver, transverse colon, coils of small intestine. 3rd stage Coils of jejunum, Right psoas major, transverse colon, IVC, aorta, left superior mesenteric psoas major. vein and artery. 4th stage Anterior stomach Aorta psoas major. (pyloric antrum), Jejunum Ileum Large Intestine Cecum Below ielocolic The appendix Coils of small Psoas major and flexure intestine Illiacus Ascending colon Continuation of Coils of small The iliac us, iliac cecum intestine and right crest, quadratus lobe of liver. lumborum, lower pole of right kidney Transverse Colon Continuation of Anterior abdominal 2nd and 3rd stages ascending colon wall and fondus of of duodenum, head gallbladder of pancreas, coils of jejunum and ileum. Descending Colon Continuation of transverse colon Sigmoidal Colon Continuation of Rectum descending colon Rectum Sacrum Everything in abdominal cavity Pancreas Head rests on Stomach and Left to right: concavity od transverse colon Common bile duct, duodenum portal and splenic veins, IVC, aorta, left psoas, left adrenal gland left kidney and hills of spleen Right Kidney Adrenal gland Left Kidney Spleen 9,10,11 ribs. Notched splenic flexure Left kidney and Diaphrgam Notched border Convex facing border on midaxillary pancreas fcing stomach, tail diaphragm, left line. Diaphragm of pancreas and costodiaphragmatic splenic flexure. recess, ribs 9,10,11. Liver Right: 4th ICS Abdominal Left: 5th rib esophagus, stomach duodenum (1st and 2nd Diaphgram Diaphragm stages) right colic flexure, right kidney, adrenal gland, gall bladder, Hepatic Duct Left and right ducts Right: Common Portal Vein fuse to form common hepatic artery hepatic duct. Hepatic Artery right and left Left: Common Hepatic Portal Vein branches fuse to Duct form common hepatic artery Portal Vein Left: Hepatic ateries Right: Common Hepatic Duct Hepatic Vein Holes in the IVC Gallbladder Visceral surface of Transverse colon liver and anterior and the 1st and 2nd abdominal wall stage of duodenum. Fundus Tip of the 9th costal Body of gallbladder Transverse colon cartilage Body 1st and 2nd stages of duodenum Neck Cystic Duct Body of gallbladder Cystic Duct Common bile duct Cisterna Chyli L1 Psoas Major* Medial arcuate ligament Quadratus Lateral arcuate Lumborum * ligament Left Kidney 5th Rib Adrenal glad Left Colic Flexure Hilus of Kidney Spleen, stomach, Diaphragm, left pancreas, costodiaphragmatic descending colon recess, ribs 11 and and small intestine 12, psoas major and quadratus lumborum. Right Kidney 4th Intercostal Space Adrenal gland Right Colic Flexure Hilus of Kidney Liver, second stage Diaphragm, rught duodenum, costodiaphragmatic ascending colon recess, 12th rib, and small intestine psoas major and quadratus major. Hilus Medial area of each renal artery renal vein ureter kidney (VAU) Key:▯ Main Vessel▯ ARTERIES Branch▯ Sub-Branch▯ Sub-Sub Branch/Components▯ Sub-Sub-Sub Branch The Head The Neck Name Origin Location Bifrication Supples Name Origin Location Bifrication Supples Lingual Artery External Carotid Artery mandible, hyoglossus muscle, n/a tongue Common Carotid Artery Left: Aortic Arch Vertically up neck C4-5 n/a tongue Right: Branchiocephalic Trunk Facial Artery External Carotid Artery ramus of mandible, lower border Upper and lower Facial expression Internal Carotid Artery Common Carotid Artery Posteriorly in the In the skull brain of mandible, upward on external lips. muscles and skin neck, enters the surface of mandible and maxillary. on face. carotid canal Occipital Artery External Carotid Artery Branches opposite to facial artery,n/a skin posterior of External Carotid Artery Common Carotid Artery Travels anteriorly Tip of mandible into Branches to head runs to posterior skin over head. straight up the neck maxillary and occipital bone. to the top fo the superficial temporal Superficial Temporal arteries External Carotid Artery Lateral surface of skull Anterior and Skin over frontal head. arteries posterior branches and temporal bones Superior thyroid Artery External Carotid Artery Travels inferiorly n/a Thyroid Maxillary Artery External Carotid Artery Toward infratemporal region, 5 branches Branches Abdominal across lateral pterygoid muscle, entering pterygoid fossa Name Origin Location Bifrication Supples Middle Meningial Artery Maxillary Artery Medially to lateral pterygoid n/a meninges Abdominal Aorta T12 Abdominal organs muscle, enters foramen spinosum, runs along pterion Infraorbital Artery Maxillary Artery pterygoidpalatine fossa, interior n/a forehead Hepatic Artery Porta hepatis right and left lobe of liver orbital fissue, floor of orbit, exits through infraorbital foramen to face Buccal Artery Maxillary Artery laterally to lateral pterygoid n/a cheek and muscle. buccinator Superior Dental Artery Maxillary Artery mandibular canal 3 branches: upper teeth posterior, middle, anterior Inferior Dental Artery Maxillary Artery mandibular canal n/a lower teeth Thoracic Name Origin Location Supplies Anastomose Thoracic Aorta Heart on top of heart and along vertebral Thorax column Ascending aorta left atrium top of heart Aorta Aortic arch ascending aorta top of heart Aorta, subclavian, (Arch of the Aorta) braciocephalic, common carotid Descending Aorta aortic arch along the left of the vertebral 10 pairs of posterior column intercostal arteries Bronchial branches descending aorta Lungs (?) Esophageal arteries descending aorta Along esophagus Esophagus Posterior Intercoastal Artery Thoracic Aorta Subcoastal Groove between the Posterior intercostal Anterior intercostal vein and nerve (V.A.N.) Note: right spaces collateral arteries posterior intercostal arteries cross over the vertebral bodies. Collateral branches Posterior Intercoastal Angle of the rib to the superior Lateral thoracic wall Anterior intercostal Artery edge of rib below. (ribs 3-11) collateral arteries Lateral Cutaneous Branch Posterior intercosal Angle of the rib Lateral Thoracic wall artery Subclavian Artery Left: Arch of the Aorta Ascends thorax through thoracic Upper limbs n/a Right: Brachiocephalic inlet to root of neck and above first trunk rib and beneath clavicle. Vertebral Artery Subclavian Runs up neck through foramen brain Merges with transversarium in first 6 cervical vertebral artery with vertebrae, medial to costocervical opposite side to trunk. Enters skull through form basilar artery. foramen magnum Thryocervical trunk Subclavian Inferior thyroid artery Thryocervical trunk Costocervical trunk Thryocervical trunk posterior apex of lung n/a n/a Superior intercostal artery Costocervical trunk first two intercostal spaces Ascending cervical Costocervical trunk Internal Thoracic Artery Subclavian Branching from apices and travels Anterior Thoracic (internal Mammary Artery) beside the sternum, downward. wall (ribs 3-11) Bifrucates at xiphoid process. Superior/Inferior Anterior Internal Thoracic Artery perpendicular to sternum Intercostal Spaces Posterior intercostal Intercostal Arteries 2-9 artery and collateral branch Superior Epigastric Artery Bifrucation of internal Inferiorly Anterior Abdominal thoracic artery wall Musculophrenic Artery Bifrucation of internal Until 9th rib: along costal cartilage. Intercostal spaces thoracic artery Bifurcates into anterior intercostal7-9, anterior fibers vessels and collaterals. of diaphragm. Key:▯ Main Muscle▯ Extension/Sections▯ MUSCLES Ligaments/Tendons/Membranes The Head The Neck Name Point of origin Point of insertion Nerve Supply Note Name Point of origin Point of insertion Nerve Supply Note Temporalis Feint temporal lines Lateral surface of Raises jaw, fan-shaped. Omohyoid Two bellies (on parietal bones) Coronoid process of mandible Superior Belly of Lower border of hyoid bone intermediate tendon Omohyoid Superficial infrahyoid Masseter lower border of Lateral surface of one of strongest muscles in the muscle. Lowers the zygomatic arch angle of mandible body Inferior Belly of Scapula (shoulder blade) intermediate tendon hyoid bone. Important Omohyoid Cervical Plexus Lateral pterygoid lateral surface of pytergoid fossa of Protraction and rotation of for low sounds during V3 Sternohyoid Posterior surface of the Lower border of hyoid speech. muscle lateral pterygoid mandible mandible plate of sphenoid manubrium and adjacent bone bone posterior surface of clavicle. Medial pterygoid medial surface of Medial surface of Elevation and rotation of Thyohyoid Oblique line of lamina of Lower border of hyoid C1 Deep Infrahyoid muscle pterygoid plate of angle of mandible mandible thyroid cartilage Muscle. sphenoid bone Lowers the hyoid bone. Sternothyroid Posterior surface of sternum Oblique line of lamina Important for low Frontalis Frontal bone skin of forehead Frowning muscle and adjacent 1st rib. of thyroid cartilage. Cervical Plexus sounds during speech. Occipitalus Occipital bone skin of back of scalp Skin of back of scalp Superior Constrictor Posterior surface of Pharyngeal tubercule Voluntary skeletal Orbicularis Oculi Frontal bone and Edge of eyelids Opening and Closing eyelids pterygoidmandibular raphe and pharyngeal raphe muscle that helps
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