ANTH 201 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Negative Feedback, Permafrost, Communication

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8 Aug 2016
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Textbook notes:
-Archaeology:
1)It is a history of ideas, and theories and a way of looking at the past.
(Questions/ideas/theories)
2) It is a history of developing research methods, employing those ideas and
investigating those question. (research methods)
3) History of actual discoveries. (discoveries in the field)
-Every view of the past is a product of it’s own time and ideas and theories
are constantly evolving.
-5 stages of human past(Hesiod):
1) Age of gold and the immortals(peace)
2) Age of silver(less noble)
3)The Age of Bronze(epic heroes)
4)Iron(sorrow/death)
-Cabinets of curiosity(14th-17th C): Renaissance period in Europe. Displayed
Artifacts and minerals to illustrate natural history. Scholars studied Classical
antiquity. Consisted of:
Field Monuments: sites made of stone that immediately attracted
attention(ex. Great stone tomb)
William Stukeley: Made systematic studies of some of these
monuments(used accurate plans)
Early Excavations-
-Interpreted in biblical framework
-18TH CENTURY:
Thomas Jefferson(Virginia): First scientific excavation. Dug a trench across a
burial mound. Marks the beginning of the end of the Speculative phase. His
methods:
Scientific approach- Tested ideas about the mounds against hard
evidence(he excavated the mound)-very careful
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Logical deduction from carefully excavated evidence.
Johann Joachim Wincklemann: Father of classical archaeology-
-19TH C:
Europe: Richard Colt Hoare(Burial mounds in South Britain):
He divided field monuments into categories- Bell barrow
Middle of 19th: Archaeology is truly established:
James Hutton: Geologist that studied the stratification of
rocks(arrangements in layers of soil).
Discovered- Uniformitarianism: Stratification of rock
Notion that the past is similar to our present.
John Lubbock- Coined the term Prehistory in his book.
Lewis Henry Morgan and Edward Tylor: Broad generalizations
Concept of evolution- Charles Darwin.
Demonstrated how the change occurred through the ages.
Natural Selection
Influenced John Evans and Oscar Montellius- Studied typologies of artifacts
Leslie White/ Julian Steward- More broad/ criticized Boas/ Explanations for
long term change.
Colt Hoare
Three Age System- Stone/Brass/Iron
C.J Thomsen(1848)- first systematically studied this.
Stone/bronze/iron.
Studying and classifying prehistoric artifacts= Chronological ordering and
details on a culture.
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More careful excavation/Systematic study
Evolutionary implications
General Pitt Rivers/John Evans:
Gave rise to the method of typology
Typology: The arrangement of artifacts in chronological or developmental
sequence
True basis of modern field techniques
Pitt Rivers used plans/sections/models/recording every object
Ordered artifacts according to form and function.
Ethnographic Approach:
John Lubbock
Daniel Wilson
Evolutionary Archaeology(19th c): Unilinear evolution applied to the
development of societies. Cultures arranged from simple to more complex.
Edward Tylor
Lewis Henry Morgan
Human socieities had evolved from a state of savagery to barbarism to
civilization.
People originially lived in primitive comminusm-sharing equally.
No geographic variability/racism/explained cultural change from within.
Static societies are regarded as primitive. Something from outside must
trigger change.
William Henry Holmes: Used systematic methods and survey classifacations.
Obsession with facts rather than theory
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